Sorø Abbey was the preeminent and wealthiest monastic house in all of Denmark during the Middle Ages. It was founded by Asser Rig, the son of Skjalm Hvide, Zealand's most powerful noble in 1142. Asser established a Benedictine House just a few years prior to his death in 1151. He then lived as a monk for the last years of his life. It was common practice for wealthy and powerful individuals and families to found a religious house for several reasons: expiation of a sinful life, commemorative masses for family members, help for the poor, or out of religious zeal or devotion. Asser Rig's son, Absalon, became the powerful warrior bishop of Zealand and advisor to several Danish kings. In a move to reform Sorø, Bishop Absalon supplanted with Cistercian monks from Esrum Abbey in 1161. One of Absalon's friends Peder Strang endowed the abbey with enough land to make it financially solvent from that time on.
The Cistercians went to work on building the abbey church and monastery using a new building material, large,red bricks. The technology and style had been imported from northern Germany. From that time forward Sorø acquired property all over Denmark with an income larger than that of the royal family.
The abbey church became the burial place of the noble Hvide family. Absalon was buried behind the main altar. Three Danish kings are buried there: Christopher II, Valdemar IV Atterdag, and Oluf II. Margaret I was buried there and later moved to Roskilde Cathedral. The church remains an excellent example of early brick Gothic architecture.
Saxo Grammaticus wrote one of Denmark's most important historical sources Gesta Danorum at Sorø Abbey. Saxo the Tall (Danish:Lange), as he was called at Sorø, wrote a sixteen volume chronicle of Danish history for Bishop Absalon. Only later was he called 'Grammaticus' as a result of his excellently written Latin. Saxo's work was completed before 1208.
In 1247 much of the abbey burned down and remained in ruins for about ten years. A gift from Widow Ingeborg Strangessen allowed the rebuilding of the abbey with arched vaults.
Denmark became officially Lutheran in 1536 and the process of eliminating Catholic institutions and practice were carried out over the next decades. Sorø Abbey was turned into a home for monks who had no place else to go. It became crown property in 1580. In 1584 the monastery buildings came into the possession of Peter Reetz, a member of the State Council and Sor was set up for two sons of Frederik II, Christian, later Christian IV and Prince Ulrich. Two years later an academy had been established for the sons of wealthy noble families. Between 1596 and 1600 Christian IV built one of Denmark's first tennis courts at the academy. It was later transformed in the library at the Academy. Sorø Academycontinued on and off again until the present day.References:
The Church of the Savior on Spilled Blood is one of the main sights of St. Petersburg. The church was built on the site where Tsar Alexander II was assassinated and was dedicated in his memory. Construction began in 1883 under Alexander III, as a memorial to his father, Alexander II. Work progressed slowly and was finally completed during the reign of Nicholas II in 1907. Funding was provided by the Imperial family with the support of many private donors.
Architecturally, the Cathedral differs from St. Petersburg's other structures. The city's architecture is predominantly Baroque and Neoclassical, but the Savior on Blood harks back to medieval Russian architecture in the spirit of romantic nationalism. It intentionally resembles the 17th-century Yaroslavl churches and the celebrated St. Basil's Cathedral in Moscow.
The Church contains over 7500 square metres of mosaics — according to its restorers, more than any other church in the world. The interior was designed by some of the most celebrated Russian artists of the day — including Viktor Vasnetsov, Mikhail Nesterov and Mikhail Vrubel — but the church's chief architect, Alfred Alexandrovich Parland, was relatively little-known (born in St. Petersburg in 1842 in a Baltic-German Lutheran family). Perhaps not surprisingly, the Church's construction ran well over budget, having been estimated at 3.6 million roubles but ending up costing over 4.6 million. The walls and ceilings inside the Church are completely covered in intricately detailed mosaics — the main pictures being biblical scenes or figures — but with very fine patterned borders setting off each picture.
In the aftermath of the Russian Revolution, the church was ransacked and looted, badly damaging its interior. The Soviet government closed the church in the early 1930s. During the Second World War when many people were starving due to the Siege of Leningrad by Nazi German military forces, the church was used as a temporary morgue for those who died in combat and from starvation and illness. The church suffered significant damage. After the war, it was used as a warehouse for vegetables, leading to the sardonic name of Saviour on Potatoes.
In July 1970, management of the Church passed to Saint Isaac's Cathedral (then used as a highly profitable museum) and proceeds from the Cathedral were funneled back into restoring the Church. It was reopened in August 1997, after 27 years of restoration, but has not been reconsecrated and does not function as a full-time place of worship; it is a Museum of Mosaics. Even before the Revolution it never functioned as a public place of worship; having been dedicated exclusively to the memory of the assassinated tsar, the only services were panikhidas (memorial services). The Church is now one of the main tourist attractions in St. Petersburg.