Sønderborg Castle history began probably as a fortified tower constructed by Valdemar the Great in 1158. The castle was built to provide protection against attacks by the Wends and was part of a larger system of fortifications. Over the centuries, the castle has gradually been enlarged and rebuilt. In the years following construction of Valdemar's fortified tower, an important struggle developed between the Danish king and the duke of Schloneswig over ownership of the island of Als and the town of Sønderborg. Ownership of the castle changed hands many times. A peak in the history of the castle was the wedding of Valdemar IV (Valdemar Atterdag) (ca. 1320-1375) to the duke's sister, Helvig of Schleswig.
Around 1350, the castle was expanded significantly by the addition of both the Blue Tower (Blåtårn) and huge outer walls. In 1490, the fortress became the property of the Danish crown. Both King Hans and his son Christian II extended Sønderborg Castle and made it into one of the country's strongest fortresses. In 1532, Christian II was lured into an ambush and taken to Sønderborg Castle, where he was held as a prisoner of state for seventeen years.
Christian III in the mid-16th century had the fortress modified and converted into a four-wing castle by architect Hercules von Oberberg between 1549-57. King Hans's west wing was preserved and a further three wings were added in the new Renaissance style. After Christian III's death in 1559, Hercules von Oberberg built the unique castle chapel in 1568-1570 for Queen Mother Dorothea. After Dorothea's death in 1571, the castle passed into the ownership of Hans II, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Plön (also known as Hans the Younger). Under his rule, the castle became the center of a tiny duchy, Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg. This, however, was divided after his death in 1622.
The castle remained in the hands of the dukes of Southern Jutland until 1667, when the ruined duchy of Sønderborg was attached to the Danish throne and the castle became a Danish estate. The duchy’s representative, the prefect (‘’Amtmanden’’), took up residence at the castle. It was otherwise more or less unused in the years 1667-1718.
In 1718-1726, Frederik IV had the castle rebuilt in Baroque style by contractor general Wilhelm von Platen. The Blue Tower was demolished in 1755, and in 1764 the castle passed into the hands of the Duke of Augustenborg; but, contrary to expectations, the castle did not become the duke's residence. Instead, it was rented out as a warehouse.
During both the first and the second Slesvig wars (1848-1850, 1864), Sønderborg Castle was used as a camp hospital and for quartering Danish troops. After the war of 1864, the province and the castle became Prussian property and served as barracks from 1867 until the area was reunified with Denmark in 1920. The last duke of Augustenborg, Ernst Günther, allowed Sønderborg County Museum to move into a part of the castle in 1920. The next year, the Danish state bought the castle from the Duke, taking over the castle in 1921 and allowing several institutions to use it as long as they paid heed to the expanding museum. In 1945 and 1946, the castle was used as an internment camp for persons charged with offenses to the state.
The Royal Inspectors of Listed State Buildings, Peter Koch and Jørgen Stærmose, conducted a thorough restoration of the castle from 1964 to 1973, returning it to the Baroque form it had been given by Frederik IV in the 1720s. The windows from the barracks era were even replaced with 'masks', windows with broad wooden frames made of planks like the ones in Platen's castle.
Since 1921 Sønderborg Castle has been the home for The Sønderborg Castle Museum. The museum houses local and regional history collections from the Middle Ages to the present day, but with especial focus on the Schleswig wars of 1848-50 and 1864, World War II, and the Reunification of 1920.
The museum also hosts exhibitions on navigation, textiles and handicrafts, and has a small art collection with works by prominent Southern Jutland painters over the years. The original ramparts around the castle became a visible part of the gardens in the 1970s.
The unique chapel of Sønderborg Castle, also known as Queen Dorothea's Chapel, was built 1568-70 by Hercules von Oberberg for Queen Mother Dorothea reflects the changing times in Denmark after the Reformation. It is almost untouched, and is considered to be one of Europe's oldest and best-preserved Lutheran royal chapels. Many of the items in the chapel were created in Antwerp at painter Frans Floris’ workshop. One of the royal couple’s sons, Duke Hans II, had a burial room built in the chapel with an imposing portal of marble and alabaster.
The chapel’s organ is attributed to organ builder Hermann Raphaëlis, and it is estimated to have been built ca. 1570. The paintwork on the organ case dates mainly from 1626. Hermann Raphaëlis (ca. 1515-July 8, 1583) was of Dutch descent and was the son of organ builder Gabriel Raphael Rottensteen. Raphaëlis was summoned to Denmark ca. 1550, supposedly to build an organ for Roskilde Cathedral. Apart from the instrument at Roskilde Cathedral, built in 1555, he also built an organ for the Chapel of Copenhagen Castle in 1557. Raphaëlis later settled in Saxony, where he among other things built organs in the chapels of castles belonging to Elector August of Saxony, the Queen Dorothea’s son-in-law. The chapel may be visited during the opening hours of the museum.References:
The Church of the Savior on Spilled Blood is one of the main sights of St. Petersburg. The church was built on the site where Tsar Alexander II was assassinated and was dedicated in his memory. Construction began in 1883 under Alexander III, as a memorial to his father, Alexander II. Work progressed slowly and was finally completed during the reign of Nicholas II in 1907. Funding was provided by the Imperial family with the support of many private donors.
Architecturally, the Cathedral differs from St. Petersburg's other structures. The city's architecture is predominantly Baroque and Neoclassical, but the Savior on Blood harks back to medieval Russian architecture in the spirit of romantic nationalism. It intentionally resembles the 17th-century Yaroslavl churches and the celebrated St. Basil's Cathedral in Moscow.
The Church contains over 7500 square metres of mosaics — according to its restorers, more than any other church in the world. The interior was designed by some of the most celebrated Russian artists of the day — including Viktor Vasnetsov, Mikhail Nesterov and Mikhail Vrubel — but the church's chief architect, Alfred Alexandrovich Parland, was relatively little-known (born in St. Petersburg in 1842 in a Baltic-German Lutheran family). Perhaps not surprisingly, the Church's construction ran well over budget, having been estimated at 3.6 million roubles but ending up costing over 4.6 million. The walls and ceilings inside the Church are completely covered in intricately detailed mosaics — the main pictures being biblical scenes or figures — but with very fine patterned borders setting off each picture.
In the aftermath of the Russian Revolution, the church was ransacked and looted, badly damaging its interior. The Soviet government closed the church in the early 1930s. During the Second World War when many people were starving due to the Siege of Leningrad by Nazi German military forces, the church was used as a temporary morgue for those who died in combat and from starvation and illness. The church suffered significant damage. After the war, it was used as a warehouse for vegetables, leading to the sardonic name of Saviour on Potatoes.
In July 1970, management of the Church passed to Saint Isaac's Cathedral (then used as a highly profitable museum) and proceeds from the Cathedral were funneled back into restoring the Church. It was reopened in August 1997, after 27 years of restoration, but has not been reconsecrated and does not function as a full-time place of worship; it is a Museum of Mosaics. Even before the Revolution it never functioned as a public place of worship; having been dedicated exclusively to the memory of the assassinated tsar, the only services were panikhidas (memorial services). The Church is now one of the main tourist attractions in St. Petersburg.