Castles and fortifications in Denmark

Rosenborg Castle

Rosenborg Palace was built in the period 1606-34 as Christian IV’s summerhouse just outside the ramparts of Copenhagen. Christian IV was very fond of the palace and often stayed at the castle when he resided in Copenhagen, and it was here that he died in 1648. After his death, the palace passed to his son King Frederik III, who together with his queen, Sophie Amalie, carried out several types of modernisation. The ...
Founded: 1606-1624 | Location: Copenhagen, Denmark

Kronborg Castle

Kronborg Castle is an outstanding example of the Renaissance castle, and one which played a highly significant role in the history of this region of northern Europe. After he began to levy duty on ships passing through the Sound between Sjaelland and Scania around 1425, King Erik of Pomerania built a castle known as Krogen on the site occupied today by Kronborg. It was in 1574 that King Frederik II of Denmark used this s ...
Founded: 1574-1585 | Location: Helsingør, Denmark

Kastellet

Kastellet is one of the best preserved star fortresses in Northern Europe. It is constructed in the form of a pentagram with bastions at its corners. Kastellet was continuous with the ring of bastioned ramparts which used to encircle Copenhagen but of which only the ramparts of Christianshavn remain today. King Christian IV of Denmark initiated Kastellet’s construction in 1626 with the building of an advanced post, ...
Founded: 1626 | Location: Copenhagen, Denmark

Aalborghus

Aalborghus is a half-timbered castle built by King Christian III from 1539 to around 1555 initially as a fortification. Soon it became the seat of the king"s provincial governors in Northern Jutland, and after the introduction of absolutism, became used by the State County of Northern Jutland for taxes. A building had pre-existed at the site before Christian III"s castle. It stood south of the castle and is men ...
Founded: 1539-1555 | Location: Aalborg, Denmark

Egeskov Castle

Egeskov Castle is Europe"s best preserved Renaissance water castle with a history dating to the 14th century. The castle structure was erected by Frands Brockenhuus in 1554. Due to the troubles caused by the civil war known as the Count"s Feud, general civil unrest, and a civil war introducing the Protestant Reformation, most Danish noblemen built their homes as fortifications. The castle is constructed on oaken piles and ...
Founded: 1554 | Location: Kværndrup, Denmark

Koldinghus Castle

Koldinghus Castle was founded in the 13th century and was expanded since with many functions ranging from fortress, royal residency, ruin, museum, and the location of numerous wartime negotiations. The castle was originally founded by Christoffer I in 1268 but the oldest remaining part of buildings is the north side facing the castle lake originally built by king Christoffer III (1441–1448). The western side was lat ...
Founded: 15th century | Location: Kolding, Denmark

Hammershus

Hammershus is Northern Europe's largest medieval fortification, situated 74 metres above sea level. Erected in the 13th century, it was long believed that the castle was built as a private residence for the archbishop of Lund. However, new evidence found at the ruins of the castle suggests it was constructed in the beginning of the century as a royal residence for Valdemar II of Denmark and a base for the Danish crusades, ...
Founded: 13th century | Location: Allinge, Denmark

Sønderborg Castle

Sønderborg Castle history began probably as a fortified tower constructed by Valdemar the Great in 1158. The castle was built to provide protection against attacks by the Wends and was part of a larger system of fortifications. Over the centuries, the castle has gradually been enlarged and rebuilt. In the years following construction of Valdemar"s fortified tower, an important struggle developed between the Da ...
Founded: 1350 | Location: Sønderborg, Denmark

Ertholmene Fortress

The first permanent inhabitation in Ertholmene, generally called Christiansø, was the result of the Danish-Swedish conflicts in the late 17th century. As Denmark needed a naval base in the central Baltic Sea, a fort was built on Christiansø and Frederiksø in 1684 which served as an outpost for the Danish Navy until 1855. The islands" external appearance has changed very little in over 300 years. ...
Founded: 1684 | Location: Christiansø, Denmark

Odense Castle

Towards the end of his reign, King Frederik IV of Denmark wished for the same degree of comfort in provincial castles as he enjoyed in Copenhagen. In 1720 a contract was signed for alterations to be made to Odensegård manor. The gardener of Rosenborg Palace, J.C.Krieger, was entrusted with the work. From his studies in England and the Netherlands, he had learnt about the Dutch Baroque style.A new main wing was added ...
Founded: 1721 | Location: Odense, Denmark

Gram Castle

The east wing of Gram Castle was built in the beginning of the 16th century. The builder is unknown, but was probably one of the Reventlow family, who owned Gram from about the middle of the 15th century until 1560. The south wing was built by the Commander Hans Schack (1609 - 1676) a few years after he bought the manor in 1664. The west wing of the manor was built 1752 by Countess Anna Sophie Schack (1689 - 1760). Today ...
Founded: 16th century | Location: Gram, Denmark

Spøttrup Castle

Spøttrup Castle is the best preserved medieval castles in Denmark. The first record of the castle dates from 1404 when it was moved to the possession of Viborg bishop. Bishops built the castle in the 1400s and it was restored in 1525. It consisted of square form castle and two surrounding moats with a drawbridge. Skipper Clement, leader of the peasant rebellion, attacked to the castle during the so-called Count&qu ...
Founded: 15th century | Location: Spøttrup, Denmark

Voergaard Castle

Voergaard Castle is open to the public and houses a significant art collection. Voergaard's recorded history goes back to 1481. At the outbreak of the Count's Feud it was owned by Stygge Krumpen, Bishop of Børglum, taken by Skipper Clement's army of peasants and then, after the Reformation, confiscated by the Crown in 1536. In 1578, King Frederick II ceded the property to Karen Krabbe in exchange for Nygaard, an estate l ...
Founded: 1520-1588 | Location: Dronninglund, Denmark

Nørre Vosborg Castle

Niels Bugge was one of the first known owners of the Nørre Vosborg manor in the 14th century. In 1532 a huge storm surge enveloped and demolished the buildings, which were not rebuilt on the same site. Knud Gyldenstjerne moved Nørre Vosborg inland to its present, safer position. The estate was subsequently owned by the Linde Leths (1707–1778) and the Tangs (1783-1946), the latter family hosting many prominent guests a ...
Founded: 1552 | Location: Vemb, Denmark

Nyborg Castle

Nyborg Castle was first mentioned in 1193, but the town itself was not mentioned before the year 1202. There must have been wooden or half-timbered buildings inside the walls, but we have not, as yet, found traces of them. The fortress was built on a small hill. Archaeological excavations have shown that the first moat around the fortress was a dry moat. In the first half of the 1200's, a palace was built along the wester ...
Founded: 12th century | Location: Nyborg, Denmark

Dragsholm Castle

Dragsholm Castle is one of the oldest secular buildings in Denmark. The original castle was built around 1215 by the Bishop of Roskilde. During the Middle Ages, the building was modified from the original palace to a fortified castle. During the Count"s Feud (1534–36) it was so strong that it was the only castle on Zealand to withstand the armies of Count Christoffer. In connection with the Reformation, Dragsh ...
Founded: 17th century | Location: Hørve, Denmark

Vallø Castle

Vallø traces its history back to the 14th century. From 1554 to 1651 it was divided into two separate estates, West Vallø and East Vallø. In 1708 Vallø was acquired by King Frederick IV who passed it on to Anne Sophie Reventlow. In 1731 King Christian VI passed the property on to Queen Sophia Magdalene who in 1737 founded the Noble Vallø Foundation for unmarried daughters. Vallø ...
Founded: 1580 | Location: Køge, Denmark

Gavnø Castle

The first historical mention of Gavnø is in King Valdemar"s census book from 1231 where a 'house on Gavnø' is mentioned. The house was apparently a castle built to defend Denmark"s western coasts. In the 15th century, Queen Margaret I opened St Agnes" Priory there, catering for nuns from aristocratic families. The chapel can still be seen in the castle"s southern wing although i ...
Founded: 1737 | Location: Næstved, Denmark

Fredericia Fortress

Fredericia was established as a fortress town in 1650. On the land side, the town was laid out in circular form with nine large moated bastions. On the waterfront, the town had a somewhat weaker fortification line together with a citadel as its last defence. There is every indication that Fredericia was planned as a fortress town. The streets are regular and entirely perpendicular. Fredericia was the only town in Denmark ...
Founded: 1650 | Location: Fredericia, Denmark

Hindsgavl Castle

The history of Hindsgavl Castle dates back to the 12th century, and the name Hindsgavl was mentioned for the first time in the Danish register of manors and estates by King Valdemar II in 1231. Valdemar IV of Denmark besieged the castle with no luck in 1358. The current castle was built in the late 18th century. Today Hindsgavl is a conference center.
Founded: 18th century | Location: Middelfart, Denmark

Featured Historic Landmarks, Sites & Buildings

Historic Site of the week

Moszna Castle

The Moszna Castle is one of the best known monuments in the western part of Upper Silesia. The history of this building begins in the 17th century, although much older cellars were found in the gardens during excavations carried out at the beginning of the 20th century. Some of the investigators, including H. Barthel, claimed that those cellars could have been remnants of a presumed Templar castle, but their theory has never been proved. After World War II, further excavations discovered a medieval palisade.

The central part of the castle is an old baroque palace which was partially destroyed by fire on the night of April 2, 1896 and was reconstructed in the same year in its original form by Franz Hubert von Tiele-Winckler. The reconstruction works involved an extension of the residence. The eastern Neogothic-styled wing of the building was built by 1900, along with an adjacent orangery. In 1912-1914, the western wing was built in the Neo-Renaissance style. The architectural form of the castle contains a wide variety of styles, thus it can be generally defined as eclectic.

The height of the building, as well as its numerous turrets and spires, give the impression of verticalism. The whole castle has exactly ninety-nine turrets. Inside, it contains 365 rooms. The castle was twice visited by the German Emperor Wilhelm II. His participation in hunting during his stay at the castle was documented in a hand-written chronicle in 1911 as well as in the following year. The castle in Moszna was the residence of a Silesian family Tiele-Winckler who were industrial magnates, from 1866 until the spring of 1945 when they were forced to move to Germany and the castle was occupied by the Red Army. The period of the Soviet control caused significant damage to the castle's internal fittings in comparison to the minor damage caused by WWII.

After World War II the castle did not have a permanent owner and was the home of various institutions until 1972 when it became a convalescent home. Later it became a Public Health Care Centre for Therapies of Neuroses. Nowadays it can be visited by tourists since the health institution has moved to another building in the neighbourhood. The castle also has a chapel which is used as a concert hall. Since 1998 the castle housed a gallery in which works of various artists are presented at regular exhibitions.

Apart from the castle itself, the entire complex includes a park which has no precise boundaries and includes nearby fields, meadows and a forest. Only the main axis of the park can be characterised as geometrical. Starting from the gate, it leads along the oak and then horse-chestnut avenues, towards the castle. Further on, the park passes into an avenue of lime trees with symmetrical canals running along both sides of the path, lined with a few varieties of rhododendrons. The axis of the park terminates at the base of a former monument of Hubert von Tiele-Winckler. On the eastern side of the avenue there is a pond with an islet referred to by the owners as Easter Island. The islet is planted with needle-leaved shrubs and can be reached by a Chinese-styled bridge. The garden, as part of the whole park complex was restored slightly earlier than the castle itself. Preserved documents of 1868 state that the improvement in the garden's aesthetic quality was undertaken by Hubert von Tiele-Winckler.