St. Olav's Cathedral is the cathedral of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Oslo. At the time of construction, this church, being built at Hammersborg, near the graveyard of Our Saviour, was located in the countryside outside the then city of Oslo. The work was funded by private donations and fundraising abroad, the most generous individual donor being Queen Josephine, who was a Catholic herself.
The first mass of the church was celebrated on August 24th, 1856, but as there was no Roman Catholic bishop in the country, the church was not consecrated until August 8th, 1896. When the Roman Catholic Diocese of Oslo was established in 1953, St. Olav's was chosen as the episcopal seat and was elevated to the rank of cathedral. It is the second Catholic cathedral in Oslo. The St. Olav's Cathedral was visited by Pope John Paul II when he visited the Scandinavian countries in 1989.References:
The city walls of Avila were built in the 11th century to protect the citizens from the Moors. They have been well maintained throughout the centuries and are now a major tourist attraction as well as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Visitors can walk around about half of the length of the walls.
The layout of the city is an even quadrilateral with a perimeter of 2,516 m. Its walls, which consist in part of stones already used in earlier constructions, have an average thickness of 3 m. Access to the city is afforded by nine gates of different periods; twin 20 m high towers, linked by a semi-circular arch, flank the oldest ones, Puerta de San Vicente and Puerta del Alcázar.