Het Loo Palace

Apeldoorn, Netherlands

Het Loo Palace is symmetrical Dutch Baroque palace was designed by Jacob Roman and Johan van Swieten. It was built between 1684 and 1686 for stadtholder-king William III and Mary II of England. The garden was designed by Claude Desgotz. The building is a rijksmonument and is among the Top 100 Dutch heritage sites.

The palace was a residence of the House of Orange-Nassau from the 17th century until the death of Queen Wilhelmina in 1962. The building was renovated between 1976 and 1982. Since 1984, the palace is a state museum open for the general public, showing interiors with original furniture, objects and paintings of the House of Orange-Nassau.

The Dutch Baroque architecture of Het Loo takes pains to minimize the grand stretch of its construction, so emphatic at Versailles, and present itself as just a fine gentleman's residence. Het Loo is not a palace but, as the title of its engraved portrait (illustration, below) states, a 'Lust-hof' (a retreat, or 'pleasure house'). Nevertheless, it is situated entre cour et jardin ('between court and garden') as Versailles and its imitators, and even as fine Parisian private houses are. The dry paved and gravelled court, lightly screened from the road by a wrought-iron grill, is domesticated by a traditional plat of box-bordered green, the homey touch of a cross in a circle you'd find in a bougeois garden. The volumes of the palace are rhythmically broken in their massing. They work down symmetrically, expressing the subordinate roles of their use and occupants, and the final outbuildings in Marot's plan extend along the public thoroughfare, like a well-made and delightfully regular street.

The private 'Great Garden' is situated in the back. This Dutch Baroque garden, often mislabeled the 'Versailles of Holland', actually serves to show more differences than similarities. It is still within the general Baroque formula established by André Le Nôtre: perfect symmetry, axial layout with radiating gravel walks, parterres with fountains, basins and statues.

The garden as it appears in the engraving was designed by Le Nôtre's nephew, Claude Desgotz. Throughout his military and diplomatic career, William of Orange was the continental antagonist of Louis XIV, the commander of the forces opposed to those of absolute power and Roman Catholicism. André Le Nôtre's main axis at Versailles, continued by the canal, runs up to the horizon. Daniel Marot and Desgotz's Het Loo garden does not dominate the landscape as Louis' German imitators do, though in his idealized plan, Desgotz extends the axis. The main garden, with conservative rectangular beds instead of more elaborately shaped ones, is an enclosed space surrounded by raised walks, as a Renaissance garden might be, tucked into the woods for private enjoyment, the garden not of a king but of a stadhouder. At its far end a shaded crosswalk of trees disguised the central vista. The orange trees set out in wooden boxes and wintered in an Orangery, which were a feature of all gardens, did double duty for the House of Orange-Nassau.

Outside the garden there are a few straight scenic avenues, for following the hunt in a carriage, or purely for the vista afforded by an avenue. Few of the 'green rooms' cut into the woodlands in imitation of the cabinets de verdure of Versailles that are shown in the engraving actually got executed at Het Loo.

The patron of the Sun King's garden was Apollo. Peter the Great would opt for Samson, springing the jaws of Sweden's heraldic lion. William opted for Hercules.

In the 18th century, William III’s baroque garden as seen in the engraving was replaced by a landscape park in the English taste.

In 1960 Queen Wilhelmina declared that when she died the palace would go to the State. She did, however, request that it would be returned to her family if the Dutch were to abolish the monarchy. The palace became property of the Dutch state in 1962 when Wilhelmina died at Het Loo Palace. After a thorough restoration it now houses a national museum and library devoted to the House of Orange-Nassau in Dutch history. Het Loo also houses the Museum van de Kanselarij der Nederlandse Orden (Museum of the Netherlands Orders of Knighthood's Chancellery); books and other material concerning decorations and medals form a separate section in the library.

The lost gardens of Het Loo were fully restored beginning in 1970 and completed in time to celebrate the building's 1984 tercentenary. Het Loo's new brickwork, latticework and ornaments are as raw as they must have been in 1684 and will mellow with time.



Your name


Founded: 1684-1686
Category: Palaces, manors and town halls in Netherlands


4.4/5 (based on Google user reviews)

User Reviews

Oksana Gavrix (25 days ago)
Really nice place! Lots to see! We went there just a bit before closing and ended up getting to the gardens right before they started to kick people out. If you end up with the same problem - go to the very end of the gardens first and then walk back - because they start moving people out in that direction. Layout of the Palace was a little confusing we ended up missing one side of it but we also knew we needed to go to the gardens before they close. Make sure you go to the rooftop! The views of the garden are maybe even better than what you would see down there.
Dennis van Bommel (55 days ago)
It is very nicely organised with several routes and tours to follow. The app that you can download can give you the tour as well. Written or spoken. Beautiful Palace as expected ofcourse! Each room with a story of its own and all the little details present, will keep you busy for as long as you'd like. Don't forget to look up! The restaurant is decent enough with decent prices. The reason why it only get 3 stars from me is this: In the public Palace gardens in front of the Palace itself, the are some nice benches you can sit and relax. To bad there's a lot of trash laying around. This also has to do with the little amount of bins available. Inside the Palace, it is so unbelievably busy, that (at least I did) the feeling of being rushed has a constant presence. People almost pushing themselves into the next room, not keeping in account that they are not the only once there. That really put down the experience it gave.
Fabian Jöbstl (2 months ago)
a non-pretentious baroque castle, only the dutch could accomplish that. inside still pretty fancy rooms of course. also the baroque lower and upper garden. at the end there also is an entrance/ exit to the castle forest, closes at 16.30! It is in general a pity, that the castle already closed at 17.00, since a lot of nice hours could be spend in the garden in summer evenings
Michael Heumann (3 months ago)
Fabulous combination between new and old architecture! watching the play of light with the water of the fountain from below is fascinating. the finest materials in the new building but by no means ostentatious. magnificent view from the roof of the palace. wonderful gardens. in the rearmost part of the site you can relax wonderfully by the lake.
Theano (3 months ago)
Very beautiful place. Brand new museum! 2 bar cafes restaurants with amazing lunch as well. A lot of facilities to visit and a great story to read. You need at least 3 hours to discover all the palace rooms and then at least 1 hour to walk through the gardens. There is a hike root as well so be prepared with hat, water and good shoes!
Powered by Google

Featured Historic Landmarks, Sites & Buildings

Historic Site of the week

Broch of Gurness

The Broch of Gurness is an Iron Age broch village. Settlement here began sometime between 500 and 200 BC. At the centre of the settlement is a stone tower or broch, which once probably reached a height of around 10 metres. Its interior is divided into sections by upright slabs. The tower features two skins of drystone walls, with stone-floored galleries in between. These are accessed by steps. Stone ledges suggest that there was once an upper storey with a timber floor. The roof would have been thatched, surrounded by a wall walk linked by stairs to the ground floor. The broch features two hearths and a subterranean stone cistern with steps leading down into it. It is thought to have some religious significance, relating to an Iron Age cult of the underground.

The remains of the central tower are up to 3.6 metres high, and the stone walls are up to 4.1 metres thick.