Pettingen Castle is one of the best preserved fortified castles in the country. In the 10th century, the fortress was known as Pittigero Mazini but received the name of Pettingen in the 13th century. Towards the end of the Middle Ages, the Lords of Pettingen were important members of Luxembourg society. They were present at Ermesinde's wedding, at the coronation of Henri IV and at the signing of John the Blind's marriage contract.
At the beginning of the 14th century, Arnold of Pettingen married Marguerite of Rousy, the great grand-daughter of Ermisinde. He had a son, Arnold the Young, whose daughter Irmengard, by marrying Jean de Créhange, associated the Lords of Pettingen with his renowned family. Their grandson, also called Jean, fought for René, the Duke of Lorraine in the war against Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy. In revenge, Charles completely destroyed the Castle of Pettingen whose treasures were confiscated by the Governor of Luxembourg in 1494. However, as a result of a decree made at the Great Council of Mechelen in 1503, half of the treasures were returned and the castle was reconstructed in its present form. The four corner towers were added in 1571. In 1684, Louis XIV's troops bombarded the castle, leaving it as it stands today. The ruins, which belonged to the house of Créhange, were inherited by the Comtes de Lapérouse whose descendents sold it to the Duke of Arenberg in 1837. In 1910, his descendent, the Prince of Arenberg, removed everything of value from the castle. In 1920, the southern wall collapsed.
In 1947, the castle was acquired by the State of Luxembourg. Consolidation work was carried out on the walls and on the castle's two towers in 1950. The ruins are open to the public. The ramparts with two round towers on the north-eastern side still stand. The site forms a 30 by 30 metre square surrounded by a former moat 15 metres wide fed by the Weillerbach which flowed into the River Alzette.References:
Roman Walls of Lugo are an exceptional architectural, archaeological and constructive legacy of Roman engineering, dating from the 3rd and 4th centuries AD. The Walls are built of internal and external stone facings of slate with some granite, with a core filling of a conglomerate of slate slabs and worked stone pieces from Roman buildings, interlocked with lime mortar.
Their total length of 2117 m in the shape of an oblong rectangle occupies an area of 1.68 ha. Their height varies between 8 and 10 m, with a width of 4.2 m, reaching 7 m in some specific points. The walls still contain 85 external towers, 10 gates (five of which are original and five that were opened in modern times), four staircases and two ramps providing access to the walkway along the top of the walls, one of which is internal and the other external. Each tower contained access stairs leading from the intervallum to the wall walk of town wall, of which a total of 21 have been discovered to date.
The defences of Lugo are the most complete and best preserved example of Roman military architecture in the Western Roman Empire.
Despite the renovation work carried out, the walls conserve their original layout and the construction features associated with their defensive purpose, with walls, battlements, towers, fortifications, both modern and original gates and stairways, and a moat.
Since they were built, the walls have defined the layout and growth of the city, which was declared a Historical-Artistic Ensemble in 1973, forming a part of it and becoming an emblematic structure that can be freely accessed to walk along. The local inhabitants and visitors alike have used them as an area for enjoyment and as a part of urban life for centuries.
The fortifications were added to UNESCO"s World Heritage List in late 2000 and are a popular tourist attraction.