Golub-Dobrzyñ Castle was built by Teutonic Knights at the turn of the 13th and 14th centuries, later rebuilt and extended in the 15th century. Between 1616 and 1623 it was a residence of Anna of Finland; during this period a Renaissance attic was added. The castle was destroyed during the The Deluge. In the 19th century, it was neglected and a gale caused the collapse of its attic. After 1945 the castle was rebuilt and renovated.
The chapel is the only room in the castle with original medieval interior decoration not changed during the Renaissance reconstruction. Therefore there is still typical monumental Gothic architecture like high ogival window with traceries and rising up at the height of the second floor three-bay starlike vault. Walls of the chapel were beautifully decorated with polichromies, however, for our times there are only fragments of 16th-century paintings on the front wall.
Just next to the chapel there is a smaller room used as the Teutonic infirmary, or hospital room. Later princess Anna Vasa practiced phytotherapy here. The refectory is located on the first floor of the east wing, where the Teutonic knights once ate meals and were doing banquets. Entering this room unusual for a Gothic-style windows and ceiling entablature can be noticed. The shape of the window has changed when in the 17th century castle has been rebuilt in accordance with the spirit of the new era - the Renaissance. However Gothic cross vaults hadn"t been reconstructed then and had retained its original shape until 1842, when - because of the hurricane - the eastern attica collapsed destroying the ceilings from the top as down as to the basements. Currently in the refectory one can see an exhibition of replicas of old weapons and artillery, as well as the specimens of medieval weapons.
In the days of the Teutonic knights the meeting and deliberations took place in the chapter room. As the remnants of the medieval equipment of the room there are openings in the floor, which then formed part of the heating system bringing the hot air. Later on the room was converted into Renaissance style in which it has remained until today.
In one of the rooms on the ground floor one can see the iron hooks on the ceiling. According to oral transmission they are the dismal testimony to the former premises of the room, which, if necessary, served as torture chambers.References:
From its origin as a small stronghold built by the ancient Illyrian tribe Dalmatae, becoming a royal castle that was the seat of many Croatian kings, to its final development as a large fortress during the Ottoman wars in Europe, Klis Fortress has guarded the frontier, being lost and re-conquered several times. Due to its location on a pass that separates the mountains Mosor and Kozjak, the fortress served as a major source of defense in Dalmatia, especially against the Ottoman advance, and has been a key crossroad between the Mediterranean belt and the Balkan rear.
Since Duke Mislav of the Duchy of Croatia made Klis Fortress the seat of his throne in the middle of the 9th century, the fortress served as the seat of many Croatia"s rulers. The reign of his successor, Duke Trpimir I, the founder of the Croatian royal House of Trpimirović, is significant for spreading Christianity in the Duchy of Croatia. He largely expanded the Klis Fortress, and in Rižinice, in the valley under the fortress, he built a church and the first Benedictine monastery in Croatia. During the reign of the first Croatian king, Tomislav, Klis and Biograd na Moru were his chief residences.
In March 1242 at Klis Fortress, Tatars who were a constituent segment of the Mongol army under the leadership of Kadan suffered a major defeat while in pursuit of the Hungarian army led by King Béla IV. After their defeat by Croatian forces, the Mongols retreated, and Béla IV rewarded many Croatian towns and nobles with 'substantial riches'. During the Late Middle Ages, the fortress was governed by Croatian nobility, amongst whom Paul I Šubić of Bribir was the most significant. During his reign, the House of Šubić controlled most of modern-day Croatia and Bosnia. Excluding the brief possession by the forces of Bosnian King, Tvrtko I, the fortress remained in Hungaro-Croatian hands for the next several hundred years, until the 16th century.
Klis Fortress is probably best known for its defense against the Ottoman invasion of Europe in the early 16th century. Croatian captain Petar Kružić led the defense of the fortress against a Turkish invasion and siege that lasted for more than two and a half decades. During this defense, as Kružić and his soldiers fought without allies against the Turks, the military faction of Uskoks was formed, which later became famous as an elite Croatian militant sect. Ultimately, the defenders were defeated and the fortress was occupied by the Ottomans in 1537. After more than a century under Ottoman rule, in 1669, Klis Fortress was besieged and seized by the Republic of Venice, thus moving the border between Christian and Muslim Europe further east and helping to contribute to the decline of the Ottoman Empire. The Venetians restored and enlarged the fortress, but it was taken by the Austrians after Napoleon extinguished the republic itself in 1797. Today, Klis Fortress contains a museum where visitors to this historic military structure can see an array of arms, armor, and traditional uniforms.