St George’s Church in Kostoľany pod Tribečom represents a unique example of pre-Romanesque religious architecture. It is the only church still in existence in Central Europe with a relatively well preserved cycle of wall paintings that are representative of the so-called pre-Romanesque art.
The church has undergone a number of building phases. The first one is represented by a small wooden structure, of which today are preserved only a few post-pits. The extent of this building phase has more or less been copied by the subsequent stone church.
The pre-Romanesque walled church was built of quarry stones. The interior was divided into two parts: a presbytery in the shape of an irregular trapezoid and a rectangular nave. The presbytery has a barrel vault and there is no triumphal arch that would separate it from the nave. This fact seems to have been influenced by the wall paintings, whose iconography, style and technology belong to the sphere of pre-Romanesque art. They are not only being the oldest preserved paintings in our region but are also an important source for the study of the intellectual world and the standards of early mediaeval local elites and their contacts and influences during this period. The walled Church of St George and its paintings can be dated roughly to around 1000, more specifically to the first decades of the 11th century.
From the Middle Ages to the Modern era the church underwent multiple renovations. Today’s three-room division consists of a single pre-Romanesque nave with presbytery, late Romanesque part with the gallery and tower and a modern annex with independent entrance on the western side.References:
Kristiansten Fortress was built to protect the city against attack from the east. Construction was finished in 1685. General Johan Caspar von Cicignon, who was chief inspector of kuks fortifications, was responsible for the new town plan of Trondheim after the great fire of 18 April 1681. He also made the plans for the construction of Kristiansten Fortress.
The fortress was built during the period from 1682 to 1684 and strengthened to a complete defence fortification in 1691 by building an advanced post Kristiandsands bastion in the east and in 1695 with the now vanished Møllenberg skanse by the river Nidelven. These fortifications were encircled by a continuous palisade and thereby connected to the fortified city. In 1750 the fortress was modernized with new bastions and casemates to protect against mortar artillery.