Trnava is also referred to as the Slovak Rome due its architectural gems and sacral monuments. As early as in the Middle Ages, Trnava was an important centre of Gothic religious and lay architecture – St. Nicolas’s Church, St. Helen’s Church and several church monastery complexes (Clarist, Franciscan and Dominican) were built in this period. The document issued by King Belo IV in 1238, which contained privileges of the free royal borough for Trnava as the first Slovak town, is much more important in respect. Only several towns of central Europe can boast such large section of castle walls as that surviving in the eastern and western parts of the town core. For their high level of preservation the walls are unique and significant monuments of the kind in terms of Europe. Fortifications are from the 13th to 16th centuries.

The dominant of the square and in fact of the town, is the town tower. Master Jacob built it in 1574 on Gothic foundations and its view terrace provides a perfect view of Trnava and its environs.

The Early Baroque building of national significance, university church of St. John the Baptist is one of the most valuable historical monuments of Trnava. The monumental wooden main altar from 1640 dominates in its interior. Additional buildings including the college, grammar school, university, seminars and refectories accompany the university church.

Another Gothic monument, St. Nicholas Basilica, parish church stands on the square Námestie Sv. Mikuláša on the site of an older Romanesque church from the 14th century. It was a cathedral church of the Esztergom Archbishop in the years 1543-1820. Trnava is the first Slovak metropolitan seat of archbishop since 1978.

The District hospital was built 1824. The building of the theatre started in May 1831 and the first performance was played at Christmas. Both of the Trnava synagogues, historical structures with oriental motifs, date back to the 19th century. The Synagogue Status Quo Ante currently houses the Jána Koniareka art gallery.

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Doune Castle

Doune Castle was originally built in the thirteenth century, then probably damaged in the Scottish Wars of Independence, before being rebuilt in its present form in the late 14th century by Robert Stewart, Duke of Albany (c. 1340–1420), the son of King Robert II of Scots, and Regent of Scotland from 1388 until his death. Duke Robert"s stronghold has survived relatively unchanged and complete, and the whole castle was traditionally thought of as the result of a single period of construction at this time. The castle passed to the crown in 1425, when Albany"s son was executed, and was used as a royal hunting lodge and dower house.

In the later 16th century, Doune became the property of the Earls of Moray. The castle saw military action during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms and Glencairn"s rising in the mid-17th century, and during the Jacobite risings of the late 17th century and 18th century.