Les Invalides

Paris, France

Les Invalides is a complex of buildings containing museums and monuments, all relating to the military history of France, as well as a hospital and a retirement home for war veterans, the building's original purpose. The buildings house the Musée de l'Armée, the military museum of the Army of France, the Musée des Plans-Reliefs, and the Musée d'Histoire Contemporaine, as well as the burial site for some of France's war heroes, notably Napoleon Bonaparte.

Louis XIV initiated the project in 1670, as a home and hospital for aged and unwell soldiers: the name is a shortened form of hôpital des invalides. The architect of Les Invalides was Libéral Bruant. The enlarged project was completed in 1676, the river front measured 196 metres and the complex had fifteen courtyards. Jules Hardouin Mansart assisted the aged Bruant, and the chapel was finished in 1679 to Bruant's designs after the elder architect's death.

Shortly after the veterans' chapel was completed, Louis XIV commissioned Mansart to construct a separate private royal chapel referred to as the Église du Dôme from its most striking feature. Inspired by St. Peter's Basilica in Rome, the original for all Baroque domes, it is one of the triumphs of French Baroque architecture. The domed chapel is centrally placed to dominate the court of honour. It was finished in 1708.

Because of its location and significance, the Invalides served as the scene for several key events in French history. On 14 July 1789 it was stormed by Parisian rioters who seized the cannons and muskets stored in its cellars to use against the Bastille later the same day. Napoleon was entombed under the dome of the Invalides with great ceremony in 1840. In December 1894 the degradation of Captain Alfred Dreyfus was held before the main building, while his subsequent rehabilitation ceremony took place in a courtyard of the complex in 1906.

The building retained its primary function of a retirement home and hospital for military veterans until the early twentieth century. In 1872 the musée d'artillerie (Artillery Museum) was located within the building to be joined by the Historical Museum of the Armies in 1896. The two institutions were merged to form the present musée de l'armée in 1905. At the same time the veterans in residence were dispersed to smaller centres outside Paris. The reason was that the adoption of a mainly conscript army, after 1872, meant a substantial reduction in the numbers of veterans having the twenty or more years of military service formerly required to enter the Hôpital des Invalides. The building accordingly became too large for its original purpose. The modern complex does however still include the facilities detailed below for about a hundred elderly or incapacitated former soldiers.

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Details

Founded: 1670
Category: Palaces, manors and town halls in France

Rating

4.6/5 (based on Google user reviews)

User Reviews

Ollie Fitton-Cook (6 months ago)
An absolute essential if you have an interest in French history and worth the entry price for Napoleon’s tomb alone. They do good trails for children which you can print for free from their website. The only downside was that the dome entrance was closed when we arrived and we had to walk all the way around the large building while it was raining. Be aware that this could happen without warning.
Vera Kruysse (6 months ago)
Very beautiful building and interesting museums. I liked the tomb of Napoleon the most. The ticket office is pretty hard to find if you come from the northern entrance. The southern entrance was closed so we had to walk all the way to the other side.
Mariejoe Chahine (7 months ago)
We did the mistake of coming at 4pm while the museums closes 6, this place needs more than 2 hours! Do your research before you come to optimize your visit, the ticket gives you access to several museums including the tomb of Napoleon. Very interesting place if you like some history.
Front Row Views (7 months ago)
A must visit in Paris, especially if you want to find out more about the history of the French Republic and Napoleons legacy. Many important French historical figures rest here, which is a sight to behold. Napoleon loved himself, which is evident to the grand scale and beautiful art surrounding his grave.
Evan Nottingham (9 months ago)
Great museum! I loved seeing the tomb of Napoleon I! The architecture was breathtaking. The war museum was also enjoyable, though I had to rush it because of a change of plans. The ticket was €15 for an American adult, and it gave access to the tomb and museum.
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