In 1211 Riga's archbishop Albert inaugurated Theodorich as the bishop of Estonia. The centre of the bishopric was to be in Lihula. The Construction of the Bishop's Castle began after the conquest of Estonia, namely in 1238 and it was finished in 1242. The bishop shared the castle with the Order. Their relationship became however quite tense and the bishop soon began to look for a more peaceful location. In 1251 the bishop moved to Old-Pärnu and in 1279 to Haapsalu.
The main castle was located on an oval-shaped hilltop, surrounded by a wall, which was at the same time an outer side of the buildings. The north and west sides of the hill were steep, the south and east sides shelving. For that reason the castle was protected from the south and east with two outworks separated by dry moats and stone walls.
During the Livonian War (1558-83) the castle repeatedly changed hands and it was greatly damaged. It was last besieged in 1581. After the war it was decided that the castle would not be restored and in 1643 the Queen of Sweden gave the permission to demolish it.
In 1990-1996 archaeological excavations were carried out on the east side of the main castle, where the walls of the pre-defence system of the main gate were uncovered. Research has shown that the Bishop's Castle of Lihula is one of the most unique defence buildings from the 13th century in the Baltic.
Reference: Lihula Museum
Hluboká Castle (Schloss Frauenberg) is considered one of the most beautiful castles in the Czech Republic. In the second half of the 13th century, a Gothic castle was built at the site. During its history, the castle was rebuilt several times. It was first expanded during the Renaissance period, then rebuilt into a Baroque castle at the order of Adam Franz von Schwarzenberg in the beginning of the 18th century. It reached its current appearance during the 19th century, when Johann Adolf II von Schwarzenberg ordered the reconstruction of the castle in the romantic style of England's Windsor Castle.
The Schwarzenbergs lived in Hluboká until the end of 1939, when the last owner (Adolph Schwarzenberg) emigrated overseas to escape from the Nazis. The Schwarzenbergs lost all of their Czech property through a special legislative Act, the Lex Schwarzenberg, in 1947.
The original royal castle of Přemysl Otakar II from the second half of the 13th century was rebuilt at the end of the 16th century by the Lords of Hradec. It received its present appearance under Count Jan Adam of Schwarzenberg. According to the English Windsor example, architects Franz Beer and F. Deworetzky built a Romantic Neo-Gothic chateau, surrounded by a 1.9 square kilometres English park here in the years 1841 to 1871. In 1940, the castle was seized from the last owner, Adolph Schwarzenberg by the Gestapo and confiscated by the government of Czechoslovakia after the end of World War II. The castle is open to public. There is a winter garden and riding-hall where the Southern Bohemian gallery exhibitions have been housed since 1956.