Charenza, also Karentia or Karenz, was a medieval Slavic burgwall on the island of Rügen in the Baltic Sea. It was the administrative centre of the Rani tribe and of the Principality of Rugia. Today, the remnants are called Venzer Burgwall. Charenza was not only the administrative hub of the Rani tribe, but also a religious centre with the temples of Rugievit, Porevit and Porenut. The main religious centre of the Rani, however, was Arkona on Wittow.
In 1168, King Valdemar I of Denmark and his archbishop Absalon captured Arkona. Charenza surrendered a few days later after negotiations with the Rugian princes Tetzlav and Jaromar I. The temples were destroyed, the princes agreed to become Danish vassals and the population adopted the Christian faith. In 1180, the administrative centre of the Principality of Rugia was moved to Rugard (today Bergen auf Rügen, just a few kilometres to the southeast).
In the 12th century, Charenza was mentioned by Saxo Grammaticus and Helmold von Bosau. The last records are from the early 13th century. When the Danish king raised money to build 12 churches on Rügen, one of them was the capelle nostre in Charenz, which in 1232 was granted the village of Gagern as a fief. In 1234, when the Rugian prince Vitslav I granted Lübeck law to Stralsund, the document was signed in Charenza. The last record mentioning Charenza was in 1237. In the 14th century, 'Gharense' was mentioned as belonging to the parish of Gingst.References:
Narikala is an ancient fortress overlooking Tbilisi, the capital of Georgia, and the Kura River. The fortress consists of two walled sections on a steep hill between the sulphur baths and the botanical gardens of Tbilisi. On the lower court there is the recently restored St Nicholas church. Newly built in 1996–1997, it replaces the original 13th-century church that was destroyed in a fire. The new church is of 'prescribed cross' type, having doors on three sides. The internal part of the church is decorated with the frescos showing scenes both from the Bible and history of Georgia.
The fortress was established in the 4th century and it was a Persian citadel. It was considerably expanded by the Umayyads in the 7th century and later, by king David the Builder (1089–1125). Most of extant fortifications date from the 16th and 17th centuries. In 1827, parts of the fortress were damaged by an earthquake and demolished.