Historic Centre of Stralsund

Stralsund, Germany

The medieval towns of Wismar and Stralsund were major trading centres of the Hanseatic League in the 14th and 15th centuries. In the 17th and 18th centuries they became Swedish administrative and defensive centres for the German territories. They contributed to the development of the characteristic building types and techniques of Brick Gothic in the Baltic region, as exemplified in several important brick cathedrals, the Town Hall of Stralsund, and the series of houses for residential, commercial and crafts use, representing its evolution over several centuries. Due the valuable remnants of the Hanseatic time, Brick Gothic, renaissance, baroque, historicist and Jugendstil buildings Stralsund old town island and near Wismar are today a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

The heart of the old town is the Old Market Square (Alter Markt), with the Gothic Town Hall (13th century). Behind the town hall soars the imposing Nikolaikirche (St. Nicholas' Church), built in 1270–1360. The square is surrounded by houses from different periods, including the Gothic Wulflamhaus (a 14th-century patrician house, today a restaurant), and the Baroque Commandantenhus of 1751, the old headquarters of the Swedish military commander.

In the Middle Ages, the Stralsund area was part of the West Slavic Principality of Rügen. In 1168, the Principality of Rügen became a part of Kingdom of Denmark. In the course of German Ostsiedlung, many German settlers, gentry and merchants were called into the principality, and eventually populated the Strale settlement. Merchants from other countries as well as locals were attracted to the area and made up for one third of the town's population. The Danish navy used the isle as well. When the settlement had grown to town size, prince Wizlaw I of Rügen granted Lübeck law to 'our town Stralow' in 1234, although a significant settlement had existed long before the formal founding. In 1240, when the prince gave additional land to the town, he called it Stralesund.

The success of the settlement challenged the powerful Free City of Lübeck, which burnt Stralsund down in 1249. Afterwards the town was rebuilt with a massive town wall having 11 town gates and 30 watchtowers. The Neustadt, a town-like suburb, was merged to Stralsund by 1361. Schadegard, a twin town to Stralsund also founded by Wizlaw I nearby, but was not granted German law, served as the principal stronghold and enclosed a fort. It was given up and torn down by 1269 under the pressure of the Stralsund Bürger.

In 1293 Stralsund became a member of the Hanseatic League. A total of 300 ships flying the flag of Stralsund cruised the Baltic Sea in the 14th century. In 1325, the Principality of Rügen became part of the Duchy of Pomerania, Stralsund however maintained a considerable independence.

In the 17th century, Stralsund became a theatre in the Thirty Years' War. In the Battle of Stralsund (1628), the town was besieged by Albrecht von Wallenstein after the council refused to accept the Capitulation of Franzburg. Stralsund resisted with Danish and Swedish support. The Swedish garrison in Stralsund was the first on German soil in history. With the Treaty of Stettin (1630), the town became a major Swedish fort in the Duchy of Pomerania.

After the war, the Peace of Westphalia (1648) and the Treaty of Stettin (1653) made Stralsund part of Swedish Pomerania. Lost to Brandenburg in the Battle of Stralsund (1678), it was restored to Sweden in the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye (1679). In the Great Northern War in 1715 Charles XII led the defence of Stralsund for a year against the united European armies. Stralsund remained under Swedish control until the Battle of Stralsund (1807), when it was seized by Napoleon Bonaparte's army. Seized by Ferdinand von Schill's freikorps in 1809, it was subsequently re-gained by France, with Schill killed in action. In the Congress of Vienna (1815), Stralsund became a part of the Prussian Province of Pomerania and the seat of a government region resembling the former Swedish Pomerania. From 1949 until German Reunification in 1990, Stralsund was part of the German Democratic Republic.

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User Reviews

LA KALE (11 months ago)
We took part in the night watchman round and were very enthusiastic. Really interesting!
Grzegorz W (12 months ago)
By one side - you're creating impression, that Stralsund is warmly welcoming all visitors city. But on the other hand looks, like the only tourists you're opened for are other Germans. We've stopped by in hotel for a day or two wanted just to visit all seeworthy attractions. First - problem with bus. Booklet (in German) from Oceaneum we've found at the reception desk have bus number, however for other details is pointing a bus company's website. The one is only in German and quite unfriendly to find any info not knowing your language. So, we went by car. By the way - where to buy a ticket? Is it possible to pay by card? We haven't seen any ticket machines in the city, no Trafika kiosks in vicinity of hotel... Car park despite looks modern - doesn't accept any payments by credit card. Which especially during Covid time is hard to understand, thus everybody knows that money is the most dirty and bacteria transmitting medium. Parking staff speaks only German, so no any help is possibile to obtain as well. In few museums similar - mostly descriptions in German. Very seldom can be found something in other language (English) and if any - contains only few words. In restaurant we've visited - German-speaking staff cheeted us twice, so we left paying only for half. In fact - event not all, because as foriners - we don't have 'EC-girokarte', so we gave all cash we have, and leave. Theoreticaly we were able to buy a post mark for a postcard with greetings to our family we wantend to send, but vending machine (surprasingly having even Polish language) accepts only coins and EC (but even this during day-light only!). In port - all ships' schedules, infos and booklets are in German only and staff of course doesn't speak any other language as well. I know, that all Covid countermeasures like (not)wearing masks or so-called 'desinfection' of tables in restaurats which exists only in theory - is beyond your control, but can be widely seen an it's also creating a bad view. My partner is working in city hall of Danzig. One of employment criteria is speaking at least one forign language, because Gdańsk in its policy is opened for tourists. City website is in 4 foreign languages plus one local ethnic. Information on bus stops and inside buses and trams are i 4 languages as well. Visiting Old Town you will hardly find any waiter not speaking English, and mostly they're speaking also German. And in every shop and restaurant you can pay with any card, including most of parking street machines and all in garrages. I know, that Gdansk is few times bigger than Stralsund, however above applies not only to Gdansk, but to many polish cities which are being visited by foreign tourists. Last time, we've spent our holidays in Germany almost 10 years ago, and I must truly say, that looks like time has stopped here. No any progress, no opening on foreign tourists, no change at all. Still the same, regardles of region, city size etc. It's strange, because your region is so close to Polen, and I don't believe that we're the only one Poles visiting you who haven't learnt German. Most of Poles, especially young ones speaks English, so we can manage with infos in this language too. I'm not expecting of course, that you'll start learning Polish, however 'some' (means more!) written Polish infos would be very nice and giving good outcome. Right now, there is nothing but to check-out and move foreward leaving Stralsund behind. Maybe we come here in few years again..?
Damian (13 months ago)
Wanted to leave today (Sunday) and redeem the parking discount card "Vacation for the car" beforehand. We relied on the opening times which say that the tourist office is open from May to October also on Sundays until 3 p.m. The answering machine tells you the same. Unfortunately we were standing in front of closed doors on the market square :( Now we have to pay the full price for better or worse. If we had known that beforehand, we would have looked for a free parking space a little further away: /
Big Strolch (2 years ago)
Okay advices
Frank Schwaneberg (2 years ago)
Wollen Sie irgendwas über Stralsund wissen. Da wird ihnen geholfen
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Featured Historic Landmarks, Sites & Buildings

Historic Site of the week

Veste Coburg

The Veste Coburg is one of Germany's largest castles. The hill on which the fortress stands was inhabited from the Neolithic to the early Middle Ages according to the results of excavations. The first documentary mention of Coburg occurs in 1056, in a gift by Richeza of Lotharingia. Richeza gave her properties to Anno II, Archbishop of Cologne, to allow the creation of Saalfeld Abbey in 1071. In 1075, a chapel dedicated to Saint Peter and Saint Paul is mentioned on the fortified Coberg. This document also refers to a Vogt named Gerhart, implying that the local possessions of the Saalfeld Benedictines were administered from the hill.

A document signed by Pope Honorius II in 1206 refers to a mons coburg, a hill settlement. In the 13th century, the hill overlooked the town of Trufalistat (Coburg's predecessor) and the important trade route from Nuremberg via Erfurt to Leipzig. A document dated from 1225 uses the term schloss (palace) for the first time. At the time, the town was controlled by the Dukes of Merania. They were followed in 1248 by the Counts of Henneberg who ruled Coburg until 1353, save for a period from 1292-1312, when the House of Ascania was in charge.

In 1353, Coburg fell to Friedrich, Markgraf von Meißen of the House of Wettin. His successor, Friedrich der Streitbare was awarded the status of Elector of Saxony in 1423. As a result of the Hussite Wars the fortifications of the Veste were expanded in 1430.

Early modern times through Thirty Years' War

In 1485, in the Partition of Leipzig, Veste Coburg fell to the Ernestine branch of the family. A year later, Elector Friedrich der Weise and Johann der Beständige took over the rule of Coburg. Johann used the Veste as a residence from 1499. In 1506/07, Lucas Cranach the Elder lived and worked in the Veste. From April to October 1530, during the Diet of Augsburg, Martin Luther sought protection at the Veste, as he was under an Imperial ban at the time. Whilst he stayed at the fortress, Luther continued with his work translating the Bible into German. In 1547, Johann Ernst moved the residence of the ducal family to a more convenient and fashionable location, Ehrenburg Palace in the town centre of Coburg. The Veste now only served as a fortification.

In the further splitting of the Ernestine line, Coburg became the seat of the Herzogtum von Sachsen-Coburg, the Duchy of Saxe-Coburg. The first duke was Johann Casimir (1564-1633), who modernized the fortifications. In 1632, the fortress was unsuccessfully besieged by Imperial and Bavarian forces commanded by Albrecht von Wallenstein for seven days during the Thirty Years' War. Its defence was commanded by Georg Christoph von Taupadel. On 17 March 1635, after a renewed siege of five months' duration, the Veste was handed over to the Imperials under Guillaume de Lamboy.

17th through 19th centuries

From 1638-72, Coburg and the Veste were part of the Duchy of Saxe-Altenburg. In 1672, they passed to the Dukes of Saxe-Gotha and in 1735 it was joined to the Duchy of Saxe-Saalfeld. Following the introduction of Primogeniture by Duke Franz Josias (1697-1764), Coburg went by way of Ernst Friedrich (1724-1800) to Franz (1750-1806), noted art collector, and to Duke Ernst III (1784-1844), who remodeled the castle.

In 1826, the Duchy of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha was created and Ernst now styled himself 'Ernst I'. Military use of the Veste had ceased by 1700 and outer fortifications had been demolished in 1803-38. From 1838-60, Ernst had the run-down fortress converted into a Gothic revival residence. In 1860, use of the Zeughaus as a prison (since 1782) was discontinued. Through a successful policy of political marriages, the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha established links with several of the major European dynasties, including that of the United Kingdom.

20th century

The dynasty ended with the reign of Herzog Carl Eduard (1884-1954), also known as Charles Edward, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, a grandson of Queen Victoria, who until 1919 also was the 2nd Duke of Albany in the United Kingdom. Under his rule, many changes made to the Veste in the 19th century were reversed under architect Bodo Ebhardt, with the aim of restoring a more authentic medieval look. Along with the other ruling princes of Germany, Carl Eduard was deposed in the revolution of 1918-1919. After Carl Eduard abdicated in late 1918, the Veste came into possession of the state of Bavaria, but the former duke was allowed to live there until his death. The works of art collected by the family were gifted to the Coburger Landesstiftung, a foundation, which today runs the museum.

In 1945, the Veste was seriously damaged by artillery fire in the final days of World War II. After 1946, renovation works were undertaken by the new owner, the Bayerische Verwaltung der staatlichen Schlösser, Gärten und Seen.

Today

The Veste is open to the public and today houses museums, including a collection art objects and paintings that belonged to the ducal family of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, a large collection of arms and armor, significant examples of early modern coaches and sleighs, and important collections of prints, drawings and coins.