Historic Centre of Stralsund

Stralsund, Germany

The medieval towns of Wismar and Stralsund were major trading centres of the Hanseatic League in the 14th and 15th centuries. In the 17th and 18th centuries they became Swedish administrative and defensive centres for the German territories. They contributed to the development of the characteristic building types and techniques of Brick Gothic in the Baltic region, as exemplified in several important brick cathedrals, the Town Hall of Stralsund, and the series of houses for residential, commercial and crafts use, representing its evolution over several centuries. Due the valuable remnants of the Hanseatic time, Brick Gothic, renaissance, baroque, historicist and Jugendstil buildings Stralsund old town island and near Wismar are today a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

The heart of the old town is the Old Market Square (Alter Markt), with the Gothic Town Hall (13th century). Behind the town hall soars the imposing Nikolaikirche (St. Nicholas' Church), built in 1270–1360. The square is surrounded by houses from different periods, including the Gothic Wulflamhaus (a 14th-century patrician house, today a restaurant), and the Baroque Commandantenhus of 1751, the old headquarters of the Swedish military commander.

In the Middle Ages, the Stralsund area was part of the West Slavic Principality of Rügen. In 1168, the Principality of Rügen became a part of Kingdom of Denmark. In the course of German Ostsiedlung, many German settlers, gentry and merchants were called into the principality, and eventually populated the Strale settlement. Merchants from other countries as well as locals were attracted to the area and made up for one third of the town's population. The Danish navy used the isle as well. When the settlement had grown to town size, prince Wizlaw I of Rügen granted Lübeck law to 'our town Stralow' in 1234, although a significant settlement had existed long before the formal founding. In 1240, when the prince gave additional land to the town, he called it Stralesund.

The success of the settlement challenged the powerful Free City of Lübeck, which burnt Stralsund down in 1249. Afterwards the town was rebuilt with a massive town wall having 11 town gates and 30 watchtowers. The Neustadt, a town-like suburb, was merged to Stralsund by 1361. Schadegard, a twin town to Stralsund also founded by Wizlaw I nearby, but was not granted German law, served as the principal stronghold and enclosed a fort. It was given up and torn down by 1269 under the pressure of the Stralsund Bürger.

In 1293 Stralsund became a member of the Hanseatic League. A total of 300 ships flying the flag of Stralsund cruised the Baltic Sea in the 14th century. In 1325, the Principality of Rügen became part of the Duchy of Pomerania, Stralsund however maintained a considerable independence.

In the 17th century, Stralsund became a theatre in the Thirty Years' War. In the Battle of Stralsund (1628), the town was besieged by Albrecht von Wallenstein after the council refused to accept the Capitulation of Franzburg. Stralsund resisted with Danish and Swedish support. The Swedish garrison in Stralsund was the first on German soil in history. With the Treaty of Stettin (1630), the town became a major Swedish fort in the Duchy of Pomerania.

After the war, the Peace of Westphalia (1648) and the Treaty of Stettin (1653) made Stralsund part of Swedish Pomerania. Lost to Brandenburg in the Battle of Stralsund (1678), it was restored to Sweden in the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye (1679). In the Great Northern War in 1715 Charles XII led the defence of Stralsund for a year against the united European armies. Stralsund remained under Swedish control until the Battle of Stralsund (1807), when it was seized by Napoleon Bonaparte's army. Seized by Ferdinand von Schill's freikorps in 1809, it was subsequently re-gained by France, with Schill killed in action. In the Congress of Vienna (1815), Stralsund became a part of the Prussian Province of Pomerania and the seat of a government region resembling the former Swedish Pomerania. From 1949 until German Reunification in 1990, Stralsund was part of the German Democratic Republic.



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User Reviews

LA KALE (7 months ago)
We took part in the night watchman round and were very enthusiastic. Really interesting!
Grzegorz W (8 months ago)
By one side - you're creating impression, that Stralsund is warmly welcoming all visitors city. But on the other hand looks, like the only tourists you're opened for are other Germans. We've stopped by in hotel for a day or two wanted just to visit all seeworthy attractions. First - problem with bus. Booklet (in German) from Oceaneum we've found at the reception desk have bus number, however for other details is pointing a bus company's website. The one is only in German and quite unfriendly to find any info not knowing your language. So, we went by car. By the way - where to buy a ticket? Is it possible to pay by card? We haven't seen any ticket machines in the city, no Trafika kiosks in vicinity of hotel... Car park despite looks modern - doesn't accept any payments by credit card. Which especially during Covid time is hard to understand, thus everybody knows that money is the most dirty and bacteria transmitting medium. Parking staff speaks only German, so no any help is possibile to obtain as well. In few museums similar - mostly descriptions in German. Very seldom can be found something in other language (English) and if any - contains only few words. In restaurant we've visited - German-speaking staff cheeted us twice, so we left paying only for half. In fact - event not all, because as foriners - we don't have 'EC-girokarte', so we gave all cash we have, and leave. Theoreticaly we were able to buy a post mark for a postcard with greetings to our family we wantend to send, but vending machine (surprasingly having even Polish language) accepts only coins and EC (but even this during day-light only!). In port - all ships' schedules, infos and booklets are in German only and staff of course doesn't speak any other language as well. I know, that all Covid countermeasures like (not)wearing masks or so-called 'desinfection' of tables in restaurats which exists only in theory - is beyond your control, but can be widely seen an it's also creating a bad view. My partner is working in city hall of Danzig. One of employment criteria is speaking at least one forign language, because Gdańsk in its policy is opened for tourists. City website is in 4 foreign languages plus one local ethnic. Information on bus stops and inside buses and trams are i 4 languages as well. Visiting Old Town you will hardly find any waiter not speaking English, and mostly they're speaking also German. And in every shop and restaurant you can pay with any card, including most of parking street machines and all in garrages. I know, that Gdansk is few times bigger than Stralsund, however above applies not only to Gdansk, but to many polish cities which are being visited by foreign tourists. Last time, we've spent our holidays in Germany almost 10 years ago, and I must truly say, that looks like time has stopped here. No any progress, no opening on foreign tourists, no change at all. Still the same, regardles of region, city size etc. It's strange, because your region is so close to Polen, and I don't believe that we're the only one Poles visiting you who haven't learnt German. Most of Poles, especially young ones speaks English, so we can manage with infos in this language too. I'm not expecting of course, that you'll start learning Polish, however 'some' (means more!) written Polish infos would be very nice and giving good outcome. Right now, there is nothing but to check-out and move foreward leaving Stralsund behind. Maybe we come here in few years again..?
Damian (9 months ago)
Wanted to leave today (Sunday) and redeem the parking discount card "Vacation for the car" beforehand. We relied on the opening times which say that the tourist office is open from May to October also on Sundays until 3 p.m. The answering machine tells you the same. Unfortunately we were standing in front of closed doors on the market square :( Now we have to pay the full price for better or worse. If we had known that beforehand, we would have looked for a free parking space a little further away: /
Big Strolch (2 years ago)
Okay advices
Frank Schwaneberg (2 years ago)
Wollen Sie irgendwas über Stralsund wissen. Da wird ihnen geholfen
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Heraclea Lyncestis

Heraclea Lyncestis was an ancient Greek city in Macedon, ruled later by the Romans. It was founded by Philip II of Macedon in the middle of the 4th century BC. The city was named in honor of the mythological hero Heracles. The name Lynkestis originates from the name of the ancient kingdom, conquered by Philip, where the city was built.

Heraclea was a strategically important town during the Hellenistic period, as it was at the edge of Macedon"s border with Epirus to the west and Paeonia to the north, until the middle of the 2nd century BC, when the Romans conquered Macedon and destroyed its political power. The main Roman road in the area, Via Egnatia went through Heraclea, and Heraclea was an important stop. The prosperity of the city was maintained mainly due to this road.

The Roman emperor Hadrian built a theatre in the center of the town, on a hill, when many buildings in the Roman province of Macedonia were being restored. It began being used during the reign of Antoninus Pius. Inside the theatre there were three animal cages and in the western part a tunnel. The theatre went out of use during the late 4th century AD, when gladiator fights in the Roman Empire were banned, due to the spread of Christianity, the formulation of the Eastern Roman Empire, and the abandonment of, what was then perceived as, pagan rituals and entertainment.

Late Antiquity and Byzantine periods

In the early Byzantine period (4th to 6th centuries AD) Heraclea was an important episcopal centre. A small and a great basilica, the bishop"s residence, and a funerary basilica and the necropolis are some of the remains of this period. Three naves in the Great Basilica are covered with mosaics of very rich floral and figurative iconography; these well preserved mosaics are often regarded as fine examples of the early Christian art period.

The city was sacked by Ostrogoth/Visigoth forces, commanded by Theodoric the Great in 472 AD and again in 479 AD. It was restored in the late 5th and early 6th century. When an earthquake struck in 518 AD, the inhabitants of Heraclea gradually abandoned the city. Subsequently, at the eve of the 7th century, the Dragovites, a Slavic tribe pushed down from the north by the Avars, settled in the area. The last coin issue dates from ca. 585, which suggests that the city was finally captured by the Slavs. As result, in place of the deserted city theatre several huts were built.

The Episcopacy Residence was excavated between 1970 and 1975. The western part was discovered first and the southern side is near the town wall. The luxury rooms are located in the eastern part. The 2nd, 3rd and 4th rooms all have mosaic floors. Between the 3rd and 4th rooms there is a hole that led to the eastern entrance of the residence. The hole was purposefully created between the 4th and 6th century.