The first churches on site of St. Peter's Church were built during the Middle Ages (1128-1369), with famous church leader Bishop Otto von Bamberg resident in 1128, with services and baptisms being held in Wolgast. von Bamberg ordered the razing of the Pagan temple on the site and the construction of the first church, which is thought to have been comprised of wooden polls. With the conferral of a town charter by nearby power Lübeck in 1282, this church was replaced by a Brick Gothic hall church. Over the course of two centuries, between 1369 and 1554, this second St. Peter's was replaced by a third church bearing the same name, built as a court church for the Duchy in a three-aisled Brick Gothic form, complete with ambulatory and inner apse. Just before the end of the ongoing construction, the main aisle was extended west from the upper bay.
In the first half of the 15th century, the side aisles were installed and parts of the wall of former church were incorporated into the building. In the last quarter of the 15th century, two side chapels were added to the building's southern wing, only to be followed shortly thereafter by the Danish pillaging of the town.
History has not been kind to St. Peter's. in 1713, Tsar Peter I of Russia ordered the destruction of the town; St. Peter's was almost completely burnt to the ground, except for the southern side aisle and both southern chapels. The collapsed tower destroyed all the buildings vaulting apart from those in the remains of the church. The church was energetically rebuilt in the years thereafter, with the upper part of the spire rebuilt in an ortagonal form; a slanted roof complete with lighting and a peak was added in the later work.References:
The famous Italian Medici family have given two queens to France: Catherine, the spouse of Henry II, and Marie, widow of Henry IV, who built the current Luxembourg palace. Maria di Medici had never been happy at the Louvre, still semi-medieval, where the fickle king, did not hesitate to receive his mistresses. The death of Henry IV, assassinated in 1610, left the way open for Marie's project. When she became regent, she was able to give special attention to the construction of an imposing modern residence that would be reminiscent of the Palazzo Pitti and the Boboli Gardens in Florence, where she grew up. The development of the 25-hectare park, which was to serve as a jewel-case for the palace, began immediately.
The architect, Salomon de Brosse, began the work in 1615. Only 16 years later was the palace was completed. Palace of Luxembourg affords a transition between the Renaissance and the Classical period.
In 1750, the Director of the King's Buildings installed in the wing the first public art-gallery in France, in which French and foreign canvases of the royal collections are shown. The Count of Provence and future Louis XVIII, who was living in Petit Luxembourg, had this gallery closed in 1780: leaving to emigrate, he fled from the palace in June 1791.
During the French Revolution the palace was first abandoned and then moved as a national prison. After that it was the seat of the French Directory, and in 1799, the home of the Sénat conservateur and the first residence of Napoleon Bonaparte, as First Consul of the French Republic. The old apartments of Maria di Medici were altered. The floor, which the 80 senators only occupied in 1804, was built in the middle of the present Conference Hall.
Beginning in 1835 the architect Alphonse de Gisors added a new garden wing parallel to the old corps de logis, replicating the look of the original 17th-century facade so precisely that it is difficult to distinguish at first glance the old from the new. The new senate chamber was located in what would have been the courtyard area in-between.
The new wing included a library (bibliothèque) with a cycle of paintings (1845–1847) by Eugène Delacroix. In the 1850s, at the request of Emperor Napoleon III, Gisors created the highly decorated Salle des Conférences, which influenced the nature of subsequent official interiors of the Second Empire, including those of the Palais Garnier.
During the German occupation of Paris (1940–1944), Hermann Göring took over the palace as the headquarters of the Luftwaffe in France, taking for himself a sumptuous suite of rooms to accommodate his visits to the French capital. Since 1958 the Luxembourg palace has been the seat of the French Senate of the Fifth Republic.