Bruchsal Palace (Schloss Bruchsal) is the only Prince-Bishop’s residence on the Upper Rhine. It is famous for its opulent Baroque staircase constructed by Balthasar Neumann. Bruchsal Palace was constructed in 1720 as a residence for the Prince-Bishops of Speyer. The then Prince-Bishop, Damian Hugo von Schönborn, an avid art collector, played an important role in planning the complex. The three-wing palace is built of sandstone. The collection of exquisitely matched buildings, along with the carefully laid out garden, make up an extraordinarily beautiful ensemble.
Visitors entering Bruchsal Palace’s cour d'honneur (three-sided grand courtyard) are greeted with a splendid and colourful sight. The buildings are lavishly painted, decorated with gold-plated stucco, and feature golden gargoyles in the shape of dragons. Construction of the famous staircase by Balthasar Neumann began in 1728. This stunning architectural masterpiece is unsurpassed in terms of its unique style and the poetry of its design. Franz Christoph von Hutten, who resided in the palace after Schönborn, made his mark by decorating the Fürstensaal (Prince’s hall), Marmorsaal (marble hall) and the exquisite Paradezimmer (grand rooms).
The palace complex was almost completely destroyed during the Second World War. Fortunately, the structure of the staircase was mostly preserved. The palace complex’s reconstruction was one of Baden-Württemberg’s most impressive projects of this kind. Today, Bruchsal Palace is more than a breathtaking example of Baroque architecture – it is also the outstanding result of carefully-planned, highly historically accurate reconstruction work.References:
Sirmione castle was built near the end of the 12th century as part of a defensive network surrounding Verona. The castle was maintained and extended first as part of the Veronese protection against their rivals in Milan and later under the control of the Venetian inland empire. The massive fortress is totally surrounded by water and has an inner porch which houses a Roman and Medieval lapidary. From the drawbridge, a staircase leads to the walkways above the walls, providing a marvellous view of the harbour that once sheltered the Scaliger fleet. The doors were fitted with a variety of locking systems, including a drawbridge for horses, carriages and pedestrians, a metal grate and, more recently, double hinged doors. Venice conquered Sirmione in 1405, immediately adopting provisions to render the fortress even more secure, fortifying its outer walls and widening the harbour.
Thanks to its strategical geographical location as a border outpost, Sirmione became a crucial defence and control garrison for the ruling nobles, retaining this function until the 16th century, when its role was taken up by Peschiera del Garda.