Lichtenstein Castle is a Gothic Revival castle built in the 1840s. Historically, there has been a castle on the site located at the Albtrauf, above the source of the river Echaz since around 1200. It was twice destroyed, once in the Reichskrieg"s War of 1311 and again by the city-state of Reutlingen in 1377. The castle was not reconstructed and subsequently fell to ruin. It is today known as Burg Alt-Lichtenstein.
A new castle was built c. 1390 around 500 m away from the ruin, in the location where today"s structure stands. After 1567 it lost its role as a lordly seat and fell into disrepair.
In 1802, the land came into the hands of King Frederick I of Württemberg, who dismantled the ruins of the castle and built a hunting lodge there. In 1837, the land was bought from King Wilhelm I of Württemberg by his cousin Duke Wilhelm of Urach, Count of Württemberg, who, inspired by Wilhelm Hauff"s novel Lichtenstein, added the current castle in 1840–42. The romantic Gothic Revival design of the castle was created by the architect Carl Alexander Heideloff. In 1842, the castle was inaugurated in the presence of the king.
Today, the castle is still owned by the Dukes of Urach, but is open to visitors. The castle contains a large collection of historic weapons and armour.
The romantic design of the castle inspired several other buildings. The design of the castle at Lietzow was based on Lichtenstein. Likewise, the house known as 'Leckzapfen' in Osthofen took its cue from Lichtenfels. A Cape Town businessman, Reynier Fritz, who was well known in advertising circles, first saw the 19th-century Schloss Lichtenstein in the land of his ancestors, and decided to one day replicate it in Hout Bay. He was able to start building in 1986 and 12 years later it was completed. He eventually turned it into a guest house before he died there. Sometime after his death, his widow, Christine, sold it to an overseas buyer.References:
The Broch of Gurness is an Iron Age broch village. Settlement here began sometime between 500 and 200 BC. At the centre of the settlement is a stone tower or broch, which once probably reached a height of around 10 metres. Its interior is divided into sections by upright slabs. The tower features two skins of drystone walls, with stone-floored galleries in between. These are accessed by steps. Stone ledges suggest that there was once an upper storey with a timber floor. The roof would have been thatched, surrounded by a wall walk linked by stairs to the ground floor. The broch features two hearths and a subterranean stone cistern with steps leading down into it. It is thought to have some religious significance, relating to an Iron Age cult of the underground.
The remains of the central tower are up to 3.6 metres high, and the stone walls are up to 4.1 metres thick. The tower was likely inhabited by the principal family or clan of the area but also served as a last resort for the village in case of an attack.
The broch continued to be inhabited while it began to collapse and the original structures were altered. The cistern was filled in and the interior was repartitioned. The ruin visible today reflects this secondary phase of the broch's use.
The site is surrounded by three ditches cut out of the rock with stone ramparts, encircling an area of around 45 metres diameter. The remains of numerous small stone dwellings with small yards and sheds can be found between the inner ditch and the tower. These were built after the tower, but were a part of the settlement's initial conception. A 'main street' connects the outer entrance to the broch. The settlement is the best-preserved of all broch villages.
Pieces of a Roman amphora dating to before 60 AD were found here, lending weight to the record that a 'King of Orkney' submitted to Emperor Claudius at Colchester in 43 AD.
At some point after 100 AD the broch was abandoned and the ditches filled in. It is thought that settlement at the broch continued into the 5th century AD, the period known as Pictish times. By that time the broch was not used anymore and some of its stones were reused to build smaller dwellings on top of the earlier buildings. Until about the 8th century, the site was just a single farmstead.
In the 9th century, a Norse woman was buried at the site in a stone-lined grave with two bronze brooches and a sickle and knife made from iron. Other finds suggest that Norse men were buried here too.