The Cittadella is a small fortified city and citadel which lies in the heart of Victoria on the island of Gozo, Malta. The area has been inhabited since the Bronze Age, and in the Medieval era it was known as the Gran Castello. The Cittadella has been on Malta's tentative list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites since 1998.
Archaeological remains show that the area presently occupied by the Cittadella was first inhabited during the Bronze Age. The settlement was further developed by the Phoenicians, and during the Roman era, it became the acropolis of a city known as Glauconis Civitas.
During the Medieval period, the settlement was transformed into a castle, which became known as the Gran Castello. Over time, the Cittadella became too small for the growing population, and the suburb of Rabat developed around the southern part of the walled citadel. In the fifteenth century, during the rule of the Crown of Aragon, the city's fortifications were strengthened. The fortifications which surround the town mainly served to protect the village communities from foraging corsairs who raided the Maltese islands in order to take slaves.
The largest of these raids took place in July 1551, when a force of 10,000 Ottomans invaded Gozo and besieged the Cittadella. The city, which was under the control of Governor Gelatian de Sessa, capitulated after a few days of bombardment. Gozo's population of 5000 to 6000 people had taken refuge within the Cittadella, and these were all taken as slaves when the city fell. Only a monk and 40 old people, which had been spared by the invaders, and about 300 others who managed to escape by scaling down the city walls escaped slavery.
After the invasion, the damaged fortifications of the Cittadella were repaired, but were not modernized. In the late 16th century, the architects Giovanni Rinaldini and Vittorio Cassar proposed plans for the renovation of the city. The entrance and southern walls were eventually completely rebuilt starting from 1599, and they turned the city from a small castle into a gunpowder fortress. In 1603 works reached an advanced state, and work was complete in 1622. On the other hand, the city's northern walls were retained in their original medieval form. Various bastions, cavaliers, batteries and polveristas were built in the city.
Gozo's population stayed within the walls of the Cittadella between dusk and dawn until this curfew was lifted on 15 April 1637. The city was the only fortified refuge against attack for the island's inhabitants until Fort Chambray was built in the 18th century.
In the 17th century, the Cittadella's defences were criticized and plans were made to demolish the city in 1645. Mines were actually built under the bastions to destroy them if necessary, but the demolition was never done.
The Cittadella's fortifications, including part of the medieval enceinte, are intact. The southern part of the city, where the cathedral and other buildings are located, is also in good condition, but the northern part is largely in ruins. Many of these ruins date back to the medieval period, and they contain archaeological deposits.References:
The Broch of Gurness is an Iron Age broch village. Settlement here began sometime between 500 and 200 BC. At the centre of the settlement is a stone tower or broch, which once probably reached a height of around 10 metres. Its interior is divided into sections by upright slabs. The tower features two skins of drystone walls, with stone-floored galleries in between. These are accessed by steps. Stone ledges suggest that there was once an upper storey with a timber floor. The roof would have been thatched, surrounded by a wall walk linked by stairs to the ground floor. The broch features two hearths and a subterranean stone cistern with steps leading down into it. It is thought to have some religious significance, relating to an Iron Age cult of the underground.
The remains of the central tower are up to 3.6 metres high, and the stone walls are up to 4.1 metres thick. The tower was likely inhabited by the principal family or clan of the area but also served as a last resort for the village in case of an attack.
The broch continued to be inhabited while it began to collapse and the original structures were altered. The cistern was filled in and the interior was repartitioned. The ruin visible today reflects this secondary phase of the broch's use.
The site is surrounded by three ditches cut out of the rock with stone ramparts, encircling an area of around 45 metres diameter. The remains of numerous small stone dwellings with small yards and sheds can be found between the inner ditch and the tower. These were built after the tower, but were a part of the settlement's initial conception. A 'main street' connects the outer entrance to the broch. The settlement is the best-preserved of all broch villages.
Pieces of a Roman amphora dating to before 60 AD were found here, lending weight to the record that a 'King of Orkney' submitted to Emperor Claudius at Colchester in 43 AD.
At some point after 100 AD the broch was abandoned and the ditches filled in. It is thought that settlement at the broch continued into the 5th century AD, the period known as Pictish times. By that time the broch was not used anymore and some of its stones were reused to build smaller dwellings on top of the earlier buildings. Until about the 8th century, the site was just a single farmstead.
In the 9th century, a Norse woman was buried at the site in a stone-lined grave with two bronze brooches and a sickle and knife made from iron. Other finds suggest that Norse men were buried here too.