Lindau Lighthouse is the southernmost lighthouse in Germany, located on Lake Constance. The lighthouse was built from 1853 to 1856 at the western mole in the entrance to the harbour of Lindau and was first lit on 4 October 1856. It succeeded the light station in the Mangturm tower of 1230.
During the first years of operation the light was created by an open oil fire. At that time the keeper would steadily have to keep the fire burning in great pans and operate a bell and foghorn. The firing was later converted to kerosene and then gas. Since 1936 the tower has been operated electrically and was automated in the early 1990s. The light is lit on demand by ships using radio signals. The light characteristic is one flash every three seconds which is created by two rotating parabolic reflectors.
The lighthouse and the entire port of Lindau were originally built by the Bavarian Railway Company and later used to be operated by the shipping department for Lake Constance of Deutsche Bahn. Eventually the port was sold to the city works of Constance in 2002 together with the Bodensee-Schiffsbetriebe GmbH shipping company. After several years of negotiations the port area and thus the lighthouse were transferred to the town of Lindau in April 2010. It is open to visitors who may find information on local fauna and flora and on Lake Constance shipping.
The lighthouse is a popular subject for photographs.References:
Sirmione castle was built near the end of the 12th century as part of a defensive network surrounding Verona. The castle was maintained and extended first as part of the Veronese protection against their rivals in Milan and later under the control of the Venetian inland empire. The massive fortress is totally surrounded by water and has an inner porch which houses a Roman and Medieval lapidary. From the drawbridge, a staircase leads to the walkways above the walls, providing a marvellous view of the harbour that once sheltered the Scaliger fleet. The doors were fitted with a variety of locking systems, including a drawbridge for horses, carriages and pedestrians, a metal grate and, more recently, double hinged doors. Venice conquered Sirmione in 1405, immediately adopting provisions to render the fortress even more secure, fortifying its outer walls and widening the harbour.
Thanks to its strategical geographical location as a border outpost, Sirmione became a crucial defence and control garrison for the ruling nobles, retaining this function until the 16th century, when its role was taken up by Peschiera del Garda.