Burg Meersburg may be the oldest inhabited castle in Germany. The central tower was first built during the 7th century, though the original structure is no longer visible. There are two theories about the construction of the Meersburg. The first is that the Merovingian king Dagobert I built the Dagobertturm (Dagobert's Tower), the central keep of the Meersburg, in 630. Around 630, Dagobert was in the Lake Constance region working on the Christianization of the Alamanni. This theory is based on a source from 1548, and was supported by Joseph von Laßberg who lived in the castle during the 19th century. A charter issued by Frederick Barbarossa on 27 November 1155, citing older, questionable sources, mentions that the boundaries of the Bishopric of Constance were established by Dagobert himself indicating that Dagobert was personally involved in establishing rulers in the region.
The second theory is that the castle was built in the early 12th century, and based on the name of the tower an association with the earlier Merovingian king was created. It is based on the observation that in the Lake Constance region there are no records of any castles being founded in the 7th century, but in the 12th century to early 13th century many castles were built in the region. The Merdesburch Castle was first mentioned in 1113, which implies a construction date before the early 12th century.
The stones at the base of the Dagobertturm are very large roughly squared stones that according to architectural history could date from either the 7th century or from the 12th century to early 13th century. Because the stones could have come from either era, it is not clear which theory is correct. However, similarities between the Meersburg and other 12th-century castles have been noted.
The castle may have been owned by several different lords during the following centuries. It appears that the castle was owned by the Hohenstaufens for a while, because in 1213 King Frederick II celebrated the Holy Week in Meersburg. Then, in 1233 Meersburg was granted the weekly market right by Frederick II. Shortly before his death in 1254, Conrad IV, having been deposed and excommunicated by Pope Innocent IV asked Eberhard II, the High Steward of Meersburg to care for his two-year-old son Conradin. In 1261 Conradin became the Duke of Swabia, raising an army in the Ravensburg area. He departed from Meersburg to head south into Italy to fight Charles I of Anjou and attempt to reclaim the titles stripped by the Pope from his father. While Conradin was able to take Rome, he was soon afterward captured and executed.
However, even as a residence for a Bishop, the Meersburg was the site of several battles over the following centuries. In 1334, there were two candidates for the position of Bishop of Constance. Baron Nikolaus I of Kenzingen was elected Bishop by supporters of the Pope while Albrecht of Hohenberg was chosen by the Holy Roman Emperor. Nikolaus quickly traveled to Avignon, in France the seat of Pope John XXII to have his appointment confirmed. He then returned to Meersburg and quickly had the defenses improved. Albrecht, meanwhile, had raised an army from the southern German princes and was joined by an Imperial army led by the Emperor. During the summer of 1334, the Imperial army besieged Burg Meersburg. During the siege, cannons were used for the first time in Germany. However, even with the new gunpowder weapons the Imperial troops were unable to take the castle. At the end of August, Emperor Louis IV was growing tired of the siege. When Duke Otto of Austria requested his help against the Bohemians, Louis left Meersburg and confirmed Nikolaus as Bishop. Albrecht was granted the Bishopric of Würzburg in 1345 to replace the lost Bishopric.
Following Nikolaus, Urich Pfefferhardt was Bishop from 1345 until 1351. In 1352 Johann III Windlock from Constance was installed at the castle, he proved to be an autocratic ruler and was disliked by the people and local nobles. Following a dispute with Konrad of Homberg-Markdorf and the Abbot Eberhard of Reichenau, he was killed by soldiers while in his palace in Constance.
The crow-stepped gable (a stepped roof line instead of a smooth roof line) on the tower was added by the Constance Prince-Bishop Hugo von Hohenlandenberg (Served 1496–1532). Before his time, the Meersburg was a summer residence of the bishops. Following a conflict with the city of Constance in 1526, Hugo moved to the Meersburg. The castle remained the bishops' primary residence until the move to the New Schloss in the 18th century.
In 1647 the castle was attacked by Swedish troops during the Thirty Years' War, however only the roof timbers were burned during the attack. During the beginning of the 18th century, the bishops began to build the New Castle at Meersburg as a modern residence castle. After 1750 the old castle served as a house for the administration of the city.
In the Secularization of 1803 the Meersburg came under the control of the Grand Duchy of Baden. In 1838 the Grand Duke sold the castle to a private owner. The collector Joseph von Laßberg and his wife Maria Anna von Droste-Hülshoff, who was also called Jenny, acquired the castle. In 1841 Jenny's sister Annette von Droste-Hülshoff, the famous German poet, moved to the castle where she would spend the last eight years of her life. Following the death of the Laßbergs, the castle went to their twin daughters, Hildegard and Hildegunde. However they couldn't afford the upkeep and sold the castle in 1877. Karl Mayer von Mayerfels from Munich bought the castle and established a Medieval Museum in the castle. Today portions of the castle are open visitors on self-guided tours. The remainder of the castle is occupied by his descendants.References:
Kroměříž stands on the site of an earlier ford across the River Morava. The gardens and castle of Kroměříž are an exceptionally complete and well-preserved example of a European Baroque princely residence and its gardens and described as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
The first residence on the site was founded by bishop Stanislas Thurzo in 1497. The building was in a Late Gothic style, with a modicum of Renaissance detail. During the Thirty Years' War, the castle was sacked by the Swedish army (1643).
It was not until 1664 that a bishop from the powerful Liechtenstein family charged architect Filiberto Lucchese with renovating the palace in a Baroque style. The chief monument of Lucchese's work in Kroměříž is the Pleasure Garden in front of the castle. Upon Lucchese's death in 1666, Giovanni Pietro Tencalla completed his work on the formal garden and had the palace rebuilt in a style reminiscent of the Turinese school to which he belonged.
After the castle was gutted by a major fire in March 1752, Bishop Hamilton commissioned two leading imperial artists, Franz Anton Maulbertsch and Josef Stern, arrived at the residence in order to decorate the halls of the palace with their works. In addition to their paintings, the palace still houses an art collection, generally considered the second finest in the country, which includes Titian's last mythological painting, The Flaying of Marsyas. The largest part of the collection was acquired by Bishop Karel in Cologne in 1673. The palace also contains an outstanding musical archive and a library of 33,000 volumes.
UNESCO lists the palace and garden among the World Heritage Sites. As the nomination dossier explains, 'the castle is a good but not outstanding example of a type of aristocratic or princely residence that has survived widely in Europe. The Pleasure Garden, by contrast, is a very rare and largely intact example of a Baroque garden'. Apart from the formal parterres there is also a less formal nineteenth-century English garden, which sustained damage during floods in 1997.
Interiors of the palace were extensively used by Miloš Forman as a stand-in for Vienna's Hofburg Imperial Palace during filming of Amadeus (1984), based on the life of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, who actually never visited Kroměříž. The main audience chamber was also used in the film Immortal Beloved (1994), in the piano concerto scene.