Burg Meersburg may be the oldest inhabited castle in Germany. The central tower was first built during the 7th century, though the original structure is no longer visible. There are two theories about the construction of the Meersburg. The first is that the Merovingian king Dagobert I built the Dagobertturm (Dagobert's Tower), the central keep of the Meersburg, in 630. Around 630, Dagobert was in the Lake Constance region working on the Christianization of the Alamanni. This theory is based on a source from 1548, and was supported by Joseph von Laßberg who lived in the castle during the 19th century. A charter issued by Frederick Barbarossa on 27 November 1155, citing older, questionable sources, mentions that the boundaries of the Bishopric of Constance were established by Dagobert himself indicating that Dagobert was personally involved in establishing rulers in the region.
The second theory is that the castle was built in the early 12th century, and based on the name of the tower an association with the earlier Merovingian king was created. It is based on the observation that in the Lake Constance region there are no records of any castles being founded in the 7th century, but in the 12th century to early 13th century many castles were built in the region. The Merdesburch Castle was first mentioned in 1113, which implies a construction date before the early 12th century.
The stones at the base of the Dagobertturm are very large roughly squared stones that according to architectural history could date from either the 7th century or from the 12th century to early 13th century. Because the stones could have come from either era, it is not clear which theory is correct. However, similarities between the Meersburg and other 12th-century castles have been noted.
The castle may have been owned by several different lords during the following centuries. It appears that the castle was owned by the Hohenstaufens for a while, because in 1213 King Frederick II celebrated the Holy Week in Meersburg. Then, in 1233 Meersburg was granted the weekly market right by Frederick II. Shortly before his death in 1254, Conrad IV, having been deposed and excommunicated by Pope Innocent IV asked Eberhard II, the High Steward of Meersburg to care for his two-year-old son Conradin. In 1261 Conradin became the Duke of Swabia, raising an army in the Ravensburg area. He departed from Meersburg to head south into Italy to fight Charles I of Anjou and attempt to reclaim the titles stripped by the Pope from his father. While Conradin was able to take Rome, he was soon afterward captured and executed.
However, even as a residence for a Bishop, the Meersburg was the site of several battles over the following centuries. In 1334, there were two candidates for the position of Bishop of Constance. Baron Nikolaus I of Kenzingen was elected Bishop by supporters of the Pope while Albrecht of Hohenberg was chosen by the Holy Roman Emperor. Nikolaus quickly traveled to Avignon, in France the seat of Pope John XXII to have his appointment confirmed. He then returned to Meersburg and quickly had the defenses improved. Albrecht, meanwhile, had raised an army from the southern German princes and was joined by an Imperial army led by the Emperor. During the summer of 1334, the Imperial army besieged Burg Meersburg. During the siege, cannons were used for the first time in Germany. However, even with the new gunpowder weapons the Imperial troops were unable to take the castle. At the end of August, Emperor Louis IV was growing tired of the siege. When Duke Otto of Austria requested his help against the Bohemians, Louis left Meersburg and confirmed Nikolaus as Bishop. Albrecht was granted the Bishopric of Würzburg in 1345 to replace the lost Bishopric.
Following Nikolaus, Urich Pfefferhardt was Bishop from 1345 until 1351. In 1352 Johann III Windlock from Constance was installed at the castle, he proved to be an autocratic ruler and was disliked by the people and local nobles. Following a dispute with Konrad of Homberg-Markdorf and the Abbot Eberhard of Reichenau, he was killed by soldiers while in his palace in Constance.
The crow-stepped gable (a stepped roof line instead of a smooth roof line) on the tower was added by the Constance Prince-Bishop Hugo von Hohenlandenberg (Served 1496–1532). Before his time, the Meersburg was a summer residence of the bishops. Following a conflict with the city of Constance in 1526, Hugo moved to the Meersburg. The castle remained the bishops' primary residence until the move to the New Schloss in the 18th century.
In 1647 the castle was attacked by Swedish troops during the Thirty Years' War, however only the roof timbers were burned during the attack. During the beginning of the 18th century, the bishops began to build the New Castle at Meersburg as a modern residence castle. After 1750 the old castle served as a house for the administration of the city.
In the Secularization of 1803 the Meersburg came under the control of the Grand Duchy of Baden. In 1838 the Grand Duke sold the castle to a private owner. The collector Joseph von Laßberg and his wife Maria Anna von Droste-Hülshoff, who was also called Jenny, acquired the castle. In 1841 Jenny's sister Annette von Droste-Hülshoff, the famous German poet, moved to the castle where she would spend the last eight years of her life. Following the death of the Laßbergs, the castle went to their twin daughters, Hildegard and Hildegunde. However they couldn't afford the upkeep and sold the castle in 1877. Karl Mayer von Mayerfels from Munich bought the castle and established a Medieval Museum in the castle. Today portions of the castle are open visitors on self-guided tours. The remainder of the castle is occupied by his descendants.References:
The Castle of Gruyères is one of the most famous in Switzerland. It was built between 1270 and 1282, following the typical square plan of the fortifications in Savoy. It was the property of the Counts of Gruyères until the bankruptcy of the Count Michel in 1554. His creditors the cantons of Fribourg and Bern shared his earldom. From 1555 to 1798 the castle became residence to the bailiffs and then to the prefects sent by Fribourg.
In 1849 the castle was sold to the Bovy and Balland families, who used the castle as their summer residency and restored it. The castle was then bought back by the canton of Fribourg in 1938, made into a museum and opened to the public. Since 1993, a foundation ensures the conservation as well as the highlighting of the building and the art collection.
The castle is the home of three capes of the Order of the Golden Fleece. They were part of the war booty captured by the Swiss Confederates (which included troops from Gruyères) at the Battle of Morat against Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy in 1476. As Charles the Bold was celebrating the anniversary of his father's death, one of the capes is a black velvet sacerdotal vestment with Philip the Good's emblem sewn into it.
A collection of landscapes by 19th century artists Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot, Barthélemy Menn and others are on display in the castle.