Ellwangen Palace is a prominent landmark and a symbol of the town of Ellwangen.
Perched imperiously on a ridge overlooking the former monastery town of Ellwangen, the palace was first mentioned in historical records in 1266. Known as the abbots’ castle, the fortified structure provided a grand home to the abbots of the Benedictine monastery in Ellwangen. The old walls of the castle complex, dating back to the time of the Medieval Hohenstaufen dynasty, are still partly visible. However, in later years, Ellwangen’s prince-abbots altered, expanded and renovated their residence with astounding regularity.
Between 1603 and 1608, the palace was remodelled in Renaissance style, on the orders of Prince-Provost Johann Christoph I von Westerstetten. This design – a four-sided structure built on a trapezium-shaped floorplan, with towers in all four corners – still defines the appearance of the complex today. The Arkadenhof, a courtyard bounded by three stories of elegant arcaded balconies, is a remarkable architectural achievement.
After a fire a century later, the palace was renovated in the Baroque style. In addition to lavishly redecorated interiors, the new features included a double staircase, completed in 1726, a mansard roof on the main building, and the majestic Thronsaal (throne room).
In the early 19th century, many church territories were officially annexed by German states. As a result, Ellwangen Palace passed into the possession of the royal family of Württemberg. In 1815 and 1816, the banished king of Westphalia, Jérôme Bonaparte – a brother of Napoleon – and his wife Katharina, the daughter of the king of Württemberg, had some rooms refurbished prior to taking up residence.
Today, the palace provides an atmospheric setting for theatre performances, which take place here every year throughout the summer. The former rooms of the prince-provosts were converted into a museum in 1908. Both the Throne Room, which is often used for concerts due to its excellent acoustics, and the Tower Room provide a unique view of the town of Ellwangen.References:
The Mosque–Cathedral of Córdoba, also known as the Great Mosque of Córdoba and the Mezquita is regarded as one of the most accomplished monuments of Moorish architecture.
According to a traditional account, a small Visigoth church, the Catholic Basilica of Saint Vincent of Lérins, originally stood on the site. In 784 Abd al-Rahman I ordered construction of the Great Mosque, which was considerably expanded by later Muslim rulers. The mosque underwent numerous subsequent changes: Abd al-Rahman II ordered a new minaret, while in 961 Al-Hakam II enlarged the building and enriched the Mihrab. The last of such reforms was carried out by Almanzor in 987. It was connected to the Caliph"s palace by a raised walkway, mosques within the palaces being the tradition for previous Islamic rulers – as well as Christian Kings who built their palaces adjacent to churches. The Mezquita reached its current dimensions in 987 with the completion of the outer naves and courtyard.
In 1236, Córdoba was conquered by King Ferdinand III of Castile, and the centre of the mosque was converted into a Catholic cathedral. Alfonso X oversaw the construction of the Villaviciosa Chapel and the Royal Chapel within the mosque. The kings who followed added further Christian features, such as King Henry II rebuilding the chapel in the 14th century. The minaret of the mosque was also converted to the bell tower of the cathedral. It was adorned with Santiago de Compostela"s captured cathedral bells. Following a windstorm in 1589, the former minaret was further reinforced by encasing it within a new structure.
The most significant alteration was the building of a Renaissance cathedral nave in the middle of the expansive structure. The insertion was constructed by permission of Charles V, king of Castile and Aragon. Artisans and architects continued to add to the existing structure until the late 18th century.
The building"s floor plan is seen to be parallel to some of the earliest mosques built from the very beginning of Islam. It had a rectangular prayer hall with aisles arranged perpendicular to the qibla, the direction towards which Muslims pray. The prayer hall was large and flat, with timber ceilings held up by arches of horseshoe-like appearance.
In planning the mosque, the architects incorporated a number of Roman columns with choice capitals. Some of the columns were already in the Gothic structure; others were sent from various regions of Iberia as presents from the governors of provinces. Ivory, jasper, porphyry, gold, silver, copper, and brass were used in the decorations. Marvellous mosaics and azulejos were designed. Later, the immense temple embodied all the styles of Morisco architecture into one composition.
The building is most notable for its arcaded hypostyle hall, with 856 columns of jasper, onyx, marble, granite and porphyry. These were made from pieces of the Roman temple that had occupied the site previously, as well as other Roman buildings, such as the Mérida amphitheatre. The double arches were an innovation, permitting higher ceilings than would otherwise be possible with relatively low columns. The double arches consist of a lower horseshoe arch and an upper semi-circular arch.