Inspired by the excavations in Pompeii, King Ludwig I of Bavaria commissioned the architect Friedrich von Gärtner to build an idealized Roman villa, which was completed from 1840–1848. On the ground floor are the reception and guest rooms, the kitchen and the dining room, grouped around two inner court yards, the Atrium with its water basin and the Viridarium with its garden in the rear section of the house.
The splendid decoration of the interior and the mosaic floors were copied or adapted from ancient models. Since 1994, original Roman works of art from the State Antiquities Collections and the Glyptothek in Munich are now also on display here. Among the most valuable exhibits in addition to the Roman marble sculptures, small bronzes and glas ses, are two marble thrones of gods. In addition, there is a different special exhibtion every year on an archaeological topic.
The Pompeiianum is surrounded by a small garden which was also only laid out in the mid-19th century. It was to be an 'ideal Mediterranean landscape', and still has a flavour of the warmer climes of southern Europe with its fig, araucaria and almond trees, as well as vines, Lombardy poplars and pines.References:
Roman Walls of Lugo are an exceptional architectural, archaeological and constructive legacy of Roman engineering, dating from the 3rd and 4th centuries AD. The Walls are built of internal and external stone facings of slate with some granite, with a core filling of a conglomerate of slate slabs and worked stone pieces from Roman buildings, interlocked with lime mortar.
Their total length of 2117 m in the shape of an oblong rectangle occupies an area of 1.68 ha. Their height varies between 8 and 10 m, with a width of 4.2 m, reaching 7 m in some specific points. The walls still contain 85 external towers, 10 gates (five of which are original and five that were opened in modern times), four staircases and two ramps providing access to the walkway along the top of the walls, one of which is internal and the other external. Each tower contained access stairs leading from the intervallum to the wall walk of town wall, of which a total of 21 have been discovered to date.
The defences of Lugo are the most complete and best preserved example of Roman military architecture in the Western Roman Empire.
Despite the renovation work carried out, the walls conserve their original layout and the construction features associated with their defensive purpose, with walls, battlements, towers, fortifications, both modern and original gates and stairways, and a moat.
Since they were built, the walls have defined the layout and growth of the city, which was declared a Historical-Artistic Ensemble in 1973, forming a part of it and becoming an emblematic structure that can be freely accessed to walk along. The local inhabitants and visitors alike have used them as an area for enjoyment and as a part of urban life for centuries.
The fortifications were added to UNESCO"s World Heritage List in late 2000 and are a popular tourist attraction.