Historic Centre of Cesky Krumlov

Český Krumlov, Czech Republic

Situated on the banks of the Vltava river, Český Krumlov was built around a 13th-century castle with Gothic, Renaissance and Baroque elements. It is an outstanding example of a small central European medieval town whose architectural heritage has remained intact thanks to its peaceful evolution over more than five centuries. The historic city center of the city is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Construction of the town and castle began around 1240 by the Vítkovci at a ford in the Vltava River, at an important trade route in Bohemia. It was first mentioned in 1253 as Chrumbenowe. In 1302 the town and castle were acquired by the House of Rosenberg. The majority of inhabitants were German at that time. For 1336 it can be expected that Czechs were only a small minority, who had their own preacher.

In late 15th century, when gold was found next to the town, German miners came to settle, which shifted the ethnic balance even more. In the parochial church the sermons were preached in Czech until 1788, when St. Jošt Church was abolished.

Emperor Rudolf II bought Krumlov in 1602 and gave it to his natural son Julius d’Austria. Emperor Ferdinand II gave Krumlov to the House of Eggenberg and the town was seat of Duchy of Krumlov. From 1719 until 1945 the castle belonged to the House of Schwarzenberg. Most of the architecture of the old town and castle dates from the 14th through 17th centuries; the town's structures are mostly in Gothic, Renaissance, and Baroque styles. The core of the old town is within a horseshoe bend of the river, with the old Latrán neighborhood and castle on the other side of the Vltava.

After the First World War the city was part of the Bohemian Forest Region which declared to be part of German-Austria. By the end of 1918 the Czechoslovak army occupied the region. During the interwar era it was part of Czechoslovakia. In 1938 it was annexed by Nazi Germany, as part of the Sudetenland according to the Munich agreement. Between 1938 and 1945 it was part of the Reichsgau Oberdonau. After World War II the town's German-speaking population were expelled and it was returned to Czechoslovakia.

During the Communist era of Czechoslovakia, Krumlov fell into disrepair, but since the Velvet Revolution of 1989 much of the town's former beauty has been restored, and it is now a major holiday destination popular with tourists from Germany, Austria and beyond.

Český Krumlov Castle is unusually large for a town of Krumlov's size; within the Czech Republic it is second in extent only to the Hradčany castle complex of Prague. Church of St. Vitus is a Gothic church dating back to the 15th century with frescoes from the same period. Český Krumlov is also home to Pivovar Eggenberg brewery. It has also been used as filming locations for movies.

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User Reviews

Мгер Симонян (16 months ago)
Крошечные дома Чешского Крумлова напоминают игрушки. Даже здание муниципалитета по своим размерам ничем не выделяется из общей пространственной архитерной среды. Расположенная на Центральной площади города, крумловская ратуша стала символом единства. Ратуша – широкое белое трехэтажное здание на главной городской площади в Чешском Крумлове. В нынешнем виде здание возникло в 17 , путем объединения двух старых готических домов. На первом этаже находится широкий коридор, соединенный с улицами большими арочными пролетами. На одном из сводов были обнаружены фрагменты настенной живописи, датируемой первой половиной 15 века, с изображением поклонения волхвов рожденному Спасителю. Здание служило административным целям по управлению города, поэтому внутри были оборудованы залы для заседаний. В подвале ратуши расположен Музей пыток, в котором представлены 100 экспонатов орудий пыток и 10 восковых фигур.
Damien Chia (2 years ago)
Fantastic place
Antonio Vergallo (2 years ago)
Český Krumlov è una città della Repubblica Ceca, capoluogo del distretto omonimo, in Boemia Meridionale, molto conosciuta per la particolare architettura del centro storico e per il castello. Il bellissimo centro storico della città è stato dichiarato patrimonio dell'umanità dall'UNESCO. La cittadina, attraversata dal fiume Moldava, con le sue case ed i suoi negozietti molto caratteristici del centro storico, i tanti musei ed una bella piazza dove è situato il palazzo del Municipio, è una città tutta da visitare. Český Krumlov è anche un centro culturale importante nella Repubblica Ceca, ospita svariati festival e altri eventi durante l'anno. Il più conosciuto è il festival della Rosa dai Cinque Petali, che viene celebrato nel fine settimana del solstizio d'estate in giugno. Molto bella, pulita, caratteristica e ben organizzata.
Rei K (2 years ago)
Cesky Krumlov is a town of UNESCO World Heritage. Here is second largest castle complex in the Czech Republic and the oldest Baroque theatre in the world. Every time when I come to Czech Republic I have to go there and relax in old lanes walking around...
Ivana Piskackova (2 years ago)
Jedno z nejkrásnějších historických měst které znám. Příjemné procházky městem , které nikdy neomrzí. Často se sem vracíme. Velice krásné jsou Slavnosti Růže , které se konají každý rok c červnu.
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The original Cochem Castle, perched prominently on a hill above the Moselle River, served to collect tolls from passing ships. Modern research dates its origins to around 1100. Before its destruction by the French in 1689, the castle had a long and fascinating history. It changed hands numerous times and, like most castles, also changed its form over the centuries.

In 1151 King Konrad III ended a dispute over who should inherit Cochem Castle by laying siege to it and taking possession of it himself. That same year it became an official Imperial Castle (Reichsburg) subject to imperial authority. In 1282 it was Habsburg King Rudolf’s turn, when he conquered the Reichsburg Cochem and took it over. But just 12 years later, in 1294, the newest owner, King Adolf of Nassau pawned the castle, the town of Cochem and the surrounding region in order to finance his coronation. Adolf’s successor, Albrecht I, was unable to redeem the pledge and was forced to grant the castle to the archbishop in nearby Trier and the Electorate of Trier, which then administered the Reichsburg continuously, except for a brief interruption when Trier’s Archbishop Balduin of Luxembourg had to pawn the castle to a countess. But he got it back a year later.

The Electorate of Trier and its nobility became wealthy and powerful in large part due to the income from Cochem Castle and the rights to shipping tolls on the Moselle. Not until 1419 did the castle and its tolls come under the administration of civil bailiffs (Amtsmänner). While under the control of the bishops and electors in Trier from the 14th to the 16th century, the castle was expanded several times.

In 1688 the French invaded the Rhine and Moselle regions of the Palatinate, which included Cochem and its castle. French troops conquered the Reichsburg and then laid waste not only to the castle but also to Cochem and most of the other surrounding towns in a scorched-earth campaign. Between that time and the Congress of Vienna, the Palatinate and Cochem went back and forth between France and Prussia. In 1815 the western Palatinate and Cochem finally became part of Prussia once and for all.

Louis Jacques Ravené (1823-1879) did not live to see the completion of his renovated castle, but it was completed by his son Louis Auguste Ravené (1866-1944). Louis Auguste was only two years old when construction work at the old ruins above Cochem began in 1868, but most of the new castle took shape from 1874 to 1877, based on designs by Berlin architects. After the death of his father in 1879, Louis Auguste supervised the final stages of construction, mostly involving work on the castle’s interior. The castle was finally completed in 1890. Louis Auguste, like his father, a lover of art, filled the castle with an extensive art collection, most of which was lost during the Second World War.

In 1942, during the Nazi years, Ravené was forced to sell the family castle to the Prussian Ministry of Justice, which turned it into a law school run by the Nazi government. Following the end of the war, the castle became the property of the new state of Rheinland-Pfalz (Rhineland-Palatinate). In 1978 the city of Cochem bought the castle for 664,000 marks.