Grodno Castle (formerly Kynsburg) is a castle located in the southern parts of the Wałbrzych Mountains, on the Choina Mountain (450 metres), standing to the left of the river Bystryca. The valley of this river, formerly known as the Silesian Valley, creates a natural boundary between the Owl Mountains and to the west of it the Wałbrzych Mountains. The castle is located in Zagórze Śląskie (11 km east of Wałbrzych), Lower Silesian Voivodeship in Poland.
The picturesque location of the castle is exacerbated by the barraged Lubachowskie Lake in the foothills of the mountain.
According to tradition the castle was built in 1193, by Duke Boleslaw I the Tall. The castle, together with a network of fortresses was used as a defense line between the Duchy of Jawor and the Kingdom of Bohemia. In the sixteenth century Grodno Castle was expanded by a gatehouse, on which there is precious sgraffito, and a sundial clock from 1716. The castle was devastated in battles against the Swedes during the Thirty Years' War, slowly falling into ruins. In the nineteenth century the tower had collapsed. The last owner of Grodno, was the Zedlits family, which had continued renovation works and strengthened the castleReferences:
Craigmillar is one of Scotland’s most perfectly preserved castles. It began as a simple tower-house residence. Gradually, over time, it developed into a complex of structures and spaces, as subsequent owners attempted to improve its comfort and amenity. As a result, there are many nooks and crannies to explore.
The surrounding gardens and parkland were also important. The present-day Craigmillar Castle Park has fascinating reminders of the castle’s days as a rural retreat on the edge of Scotland’s capital city.
At the core lies the original, late-14th-century tower house, among the first of this form of castle built in Scotland. It stands 17m high to the battlements, has walls almost 3m thick, and holds a warren of rooms, including a fine great hall on the first floor.
‘Queen Mary’s Room’, also on the first floor, is where Mary is said to have slept when staying at Craigmillar. However, it is more likely she occupied a multi-roomed apartment elsewhere in the courtyard, probably in the east range.
Sir Simon Preston was a loyal supporter of Queen Mary, whom she appointed as Provost of Edinburgh. In this capacity, he was her host for her first night as a prisoner, at his townhouse in the High Street, on 15 June 1567. She was taken to Lochleven Castle the following day.
The west range was rebuilt after 1660 as a family residence for the Gilmour family.
The 15th-century courtyard wall is well preserved, complete with gunholes shaped like inverted keyholes. Ancillary buildings lie within it, including a private family chapel.