Cmurek Castle is an originally 12th-century castle built on a hill above the Mura River in the northern part of the settlement. It was extended and rebuilt at various times in the 16th, 17th, and late 18th centuries. It is a three-story building with an internal arcaded courtyard.
The castle was mentioned in documents already in 1148 when it was owned by the Cmurek nobles. Later on, the castle was purchased by the Counts of Celje. The last owners were the Counts of Stubenberg (1401–1931) and Anton Mally (1931–1945).
The two-storey building has preserved only a few Romanesque elements, namely, in the course of centuries, numerous rebuildings have takenplace: the chapel was set up in 1340, the Renaissance arcades in the courtyard were constructed during the 16th and 17th centuries, eventually, in the late 18th century, the medieval tower was pulled down and some building extensions introduced.
From the ruins of the defence tower of the upper castle and the chapel in the lower part of the village, the New Kinek Castle was built at the end of the 18th century. Later on it was named Kapralov's castle after its pre-war owner, the Russian immigrant and physician Serghei Kapralov. Later on, the castle became quite famous for its industrial mill run by electricity as early as 1914, half a century before the neighbouring villages. It was constructed by an English entrepreneur named Harry Hanson. Drago Jančar's short story Death at Mary of the Snows was based on the Hansons' couple tragic death in 1944.
In 1947, the Cmurek Castle became a home for the elderly. A decade later it became the closed psychiatric institution Hrastovec-Trate. In the 2000s, the institution opted for an open treatment of its patients and the castle was again deserted.
From 1956 till 2004, the castle housed the Institution for the Mentally Disabled Hrastovec–Trate. Nine years after its abandonment, the castle became the nexus for a local initiative focused on the Museum of Madness. Today it has turned into a unique cultural and community venue.References:
Roman Walls of Lugo are an exceptional architectural, archaeological and constructive legacy of Roman engineering, dating from the 3rd and 4th centuries AD. The Walls are built of internal and external stone facings of slate with some granite, with a core filling of a conglomerate of slate slabs and worked stone pieces from Roman buildings, interlocked with lime mortar.
Their total length of 2117 m in the shape of an oblong rectangle occupies an area of 1.68 ha. Their height varies between 8 and 10 m, with a width of 4.2 m, reaching 7 m in some specific points. The walls still contain 85 external towers, 10 gates (five of which are original and five that were opened in modern times), four staircases and two ramps providing access to the walkway along the top of the walls, one of which is internal and the other external. Each tower contained access stairs leading from the intervallum to the wall walk of town wall, of which a total of 21 have been discovered to date.
The defences of Lugo are the most complete and best preserved example of Roman military architecture in the Western Roman Empire.
Despite the renovation work carried out, the walls conserve their original layout and the construction features associated with their defensive purpose, with walls, battlements, towers, fortifications, both modern and original gates and stairways, and a moat.
Since they were built, the walls have defined the layout and growth of the city, which was declared a Historical-Artistic Ensemble in 1973, forming a part of it and becoming an emblematic structure that can be freely accessed to walk along. The local inhabitants and visitors alike have used them as an area for enjoyment and as a part of urban life for centuries.
The fortifications were added to UNESCO"s World Heritage List in late 2000 and are a popular tourist attraction.