The seat of the Goriška regional museum is situated at the Kromberk Castle near Nova Gorica. The castle itself is a Renaissance architecture both in appearance and design, and it was built at the beginning of the 17th century, partly on the foundations of an older castle from the 13th century. During the First and Second World War the castle was destroyed by fire. It houses an art history collection, an archeological collection a cultural history collection and a permanent exhibition of art mainly from the Goriška region.
The museum also manages several dislocated collections: the Dobrovo Castle hosts a permanent exhibition of the works of the painter Zoran Muršič and several temporary exhibitions; Medana holds the Memorial House of the poet Alojz Gradink; Ajdovščina offers exhibitions of fossils and the ancient Ajdovščina; the military watchtower in Vrtojba houses the smallest museum in the world. At the railway station of Nova Gorica it's a small exhibition of the border in the period 1947-2004.
Near the administrative building in Solkan, at Vila Bartolomei, it's possible to check a restoration exhibition, an archaeological-ethnological exhibition of pottery and the archeological exhibition about the Langobards graves found in Solkan.References:
Derbent is the southernmost city in Russia, occupying the narrow gateway between the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus Mountains connecting the Eurasian steppes to the north and the Iranian Plateau to the south. Derbent claims to be the oldest city in Russia with historical documentation dating to the 8th century BCE. Due to its strategic location, over the course of history, the city changed ownership many times, particularly among the Persian, Arab, Mongol, Timurid, Shirvan and Iranian kingdoms.
Derbent has archaeological structures over 5,000 years old. As a result of this geographic peculiarity, the city developed between two walls, stretching from the mountains to the sea. These fortifications were continuously employed for a millennium and a half, longer than any other extant fortress in the world.
A traditionally and historically Iranian city, the first intensive settlement in the Derbent area dates from the 8th century BC. The site was intermittently controlled by the Persian monarchs, starting from the 6th century BC. Until the 4th century AD, it was part of Caucasian Albania which was a satrap of the Achaemenid Persian Empire. In the 5th century Derbent functioned as a border fortress and the seat of Sassanid Persians. Because of its strategic position on the northern branch of the Silk Route, the fortress was contested by the Khazars in the course of the Khazar-Arab Wars. In 654, Derbent was captured by the Arabs.
The Sassanid fortress does not exist any more, as the famous Derbent fortress as it stands today was built from the 12th century onward. Derbent became a strong military outpost and harbour of the Sassanid empire. During the 5th and 6th centuries, Derbent also became an important center for spreading the Christian faith in the Caucasus.
The site continued to be of great strategic importance until the 19th century. Today the fortifications consist of two parallel defence walls and Naryn-Kala Citadel. The walls are 3.6km long, stretching from the sea up to the mountains. They were built from stone and had 73 defence towers. 9 out of the 14 original gates remain.
In Naryn-Kala Citadel most of the old buildings, including a palace and a church, are now in ruins. It also holds baths and one of the oldest mosques in the former USSR.
In 2003, UNESCO included the old part of Derbent with traditional buildings in the World Heritage List.