Tolmin Castle was first mentioned in 1188, and its chapel of Saint Martin in 1194. The east and north towers appear to have formed the original core of the fortress; another two hexagonal towers were added later. The north tower had an extensive basement for the storage of provisions, which along with two wells and rainwater cisterns allowed for the withstanding of sieges.
The castle was held in fief by a long series of masters: the Patriarchate of Aquileia, the Counts of Gorizia, the city of Cividale del Friuli, the Venetian Republic, and finally the Habsburgs. It appears to have functioned as a dedicated fortress rather than a residence, and had no permanent civilian population in peacetime, only a large garrison; it also housed a prison. The structure was severely damaged in the earthquakes of 1348 and 1511, but was repaired each time. It was finally abandoned in 1651 by its last owners, the Coronnini family, for a new manor in Tolmin itself, though it remained sufficiently intact by 1713 to play a role in the great peasant revolt of that year. The castle is currently in ruins, though parts of it have been restored.References:
The Basilica of Santa Maria in Trastevere is one of the oldest churches of Rome. The basic floor plan and wall structure of the church date back to the 340s, and much of the structure to 1140-43. The first sanctuary was built in 221 and 227 by Pope Callixtus I and later completed by Pope Julius I.
The inscription on the episcopal throne states that this is the first church in Rome dedicated to Mary, mother of Jesus, although some claim that privilege belongs to the Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore. A Christian house-church was founded here about 220 by Pope Saint Callixtus I (217-222) on the site of the Taberna meritoria, a refuge for retired soldiers. The area was made available for Christian use by Emperor Alexander Severus when he settled a dispute between the Christians and tavern-keepers.
The church underwent two restorations in the fifth and eighth centuries and in 1140-43 it was re-erected on its old foundations under Pope Innocent II.