Hohenburg castle is assumed to be constructed in the second half of the 13th century. The influence of the Hohenburg family was extensive in the area between Bitche, Saargmünd and Pirmasens. There were feudal relations with the King but also to the Count of Zweibrücken and to the Counts Palatine. The castle is situated close to the German-French border on the Alsace side.
The first known representative of a Hohenburg family was Gottfried Puller who served in the military under the Emperor Friedrich II in 1236. In 1262 the name Hohenburg is documented for the first time, when Konrad and Heinrich of Hohenburg transferred their property to the bishop Heinrich II of Speyer.
The castle was seriously damaged in 1386 by the troops of Strasbourg during the siege and conquest of the neighbouring Löwenstein Castle. During the 30 Year War the castle was seriously damaged and in the 1780’s it was completely destroyed by French troops.References:
Sirmione castle was built near the end of the 12th century as part of a defensive network surrounding Verona. The castle was maintained and extended first as part of the Veronese protection against their rivals in Milan and later under the control of the Venetian inland empire. The massive fortress is totally surrounded by water and has an inner porch which houses a Roman and Medieval lapidary. From the drawbridge, a staircase leads to the walkways above the walls, providing a marvellous view of the harbour that once sheltered the Scaliger fleet. The doors were fitted with a variety of locking systems, including a drawbridge for horses, carriages and pedestrians, a metal grate and, more recently, double hinged doors. Venice conquered Sirmione in 1405, immediately adopting provisions to render the fortress even more secure, fortifying its outer walls and widening the harbour.
Thanks to its strategical geographical location as a border outpost, Sirmione became a crucial defence and control garrison for the ruling nobles, retaining this function until the 16th century, when its role was taken up by Peschiera del Garda.