Castel Sant'Angelo

Rome, Italy

Castel Sant'Angelo is a towering cylindrical castle, initially commissioned by the Roman Emperor Hadrian as a mausoleum for himself and his family. The building was later used by the popes as a fortress and castle, and is now a museum. The castle was once the tallest building in Rome.

The tomb of the Roman emperor Hadrian was erected on the right bank of the Tiber, between 134 and 139 AD. Originally the mausoleum was a decorated cylinder, with a garden top and golden quadriga. Hadrian's ashes were placed here a year after his death in Baiae in 138, together with those of his wife Sabina, and his first adopted son, Lucius Aelius, who also died in 138. Following this, the remains of succeeding emperors were also placed here, the last recorded deposition being Caracalla in 217. The urns containing these ashes were probably placed in what is now known as the Treasury room deep within the building. Hadrian also built the Pons Aelius facing straight onto the mausoleum. It still provides a scenic approach from the center of Rome and the left bank of the Tiber, and is renowned for the Baroque additions of statues of angels holding aloft instruments of the Passion of Christ.

Destruction

Much of the tomb contents and decorations have been lost since the building's conversion to a military fortress in 401 and its subsequent inclusion in the Aurelian Walls by Flavius Augustus Honorius. The urns and ashes were scattered by Visigoth looters during Alaric's sacking of Rome in 410, and the original decorative bronze and stone statuary were thrown down upon the attacking Goths when they besieged Rome in 537, as recounted by Procopius. An unusual survivor, however, is the capstone of a funerary urn (probably that of Hadrian), which made its way to Saint Peter's Basilica, covered the tomb of Otto II and later was incorporated into a massive Renaissance baptistery.

Legend holds that the Archangel Michael appeared atop the mausoleum, sheathing his sword as a sign of the end of the plague of 590, thus lending the castle its present name.

Papal fortress, residence and prison

The popes converted the structure into a castle, beginning in the 14th century; Pope Nicholas III connected the castle to St Peter's Basilica by a covered fortified corridor called the Passetto di Borgo. The fortress was the refuge of Pope Clement VII from the siege of Charles V's soldiers during the Sack of Rome (1527), in which Benvenuto Cellini describes strolling the ramparts and shooting enemy soldiers.

Leo X built a chapel with a Madonna by Raffaello da Montelupo. In 1536 Montelupo also created a marble statue of Saint Michael holding his sword after the 590 plague to surmount the Castel. Later Paul III built a rich apartment, to ensure that in any future siege the pope had an appropriate place to stay.

Montelupo's statue was replaced by a bronze statue of the same subject, executed by the Flemish sculptor Peter Anton von Verschaffelt, in 1753. Verschaffelt's is still in place and Montelupo's can be seen in an open court in the interior of the Castle.

The Papal state also used Sant'Angelo as a prison. Executions were performed in the small inner courtyard. As a prison, it was also the setting for the third act of Giacomo Puccini's 1900 opera Tosca; the eponymous heroine leaps to her death from the Castel's ramparts.

Museum

Decommissioned in 1901, the castle is now a museum, the Museo Nazionale di Castel Sant'Angelo.

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Address

Lungotevere Castello, Rome, Italy
See all sites in Rome

Details

Founded: 134-139
Category: Castles and fortifications in Italy

Rating

4.7/5 (based on Google user reviews)

User Reviews

Razor Sharp (2 years ago)
A beautiful castle. The experience is straight forward, but you can easily spend at least 1.5 hours here excluding the garden. There is a floor with an exhibition room, then several paths deeper and upper into the castle, but still straight-forward enough to see everything. You will see fortress interior areas, castle walls, exhibits of old weaponry and paintings, and of course many grand rooms with beautiful art covering the ceiling and walls. Tickets 14€~
Andrea Olivato (2 years ago)
The castle is very interesting to visit and explore. It’s incredibly enjoyable to see the various historical periods being present in the same building. Definitely worth the admission price. I highly recommend to buy tickets in advance via their website to avoid huge queues. I know it might be disrespectful to the beauty and importance of the monument itself, but to me the best part was the incredible view of Rome you get from the top of the castle. You can see so much of the city in a clear day, it’s majestic.
Allen Lin (2 years ago)
Rome has a lot to offer but if I were to rank the tourist attractions I would rate this one a much lower. It looks good from the outside and on the bridge that was probably the best part. The inside isn’t bad but I wasn’t too impressed. It’s basically just a good looking castle and that’s about it. If you have a lot of time on your hands go and visit, otherwise take a picture from the bridge and move on.
Rareş-Andrei Mateizer (2 years ago)
Great old castle, nice placement near the Tiber river. The view is gorgeous, especially at sunset since the Basilica of St. Peter can be seen in the background. Also, the pedestrian bridge over the river is a romantic place with people that play slow songs on the guitar. We did not enter because the castle was closed, but it was pretty crowded so I suppose you should get tickets in advance if you want to visit the inside.
J B (2 years ago)
I would recommend doing a private tour. My girlfriend and I spent 3 hours with our guide. She knew all the ins and outs of the castle. There is no parking. There was a contemporary art installation at the time and it was awful. There were statues in the courtyards, it took away from the architecture and the surrounding courtyards. The history was fascinating. The view from the bastions we're outstanding. We went in march and the weather was beautiful. Inside the castle it can get cold, dress accordingly.
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