the basilica of Saint John Lateran was built under pope Melchiade (311-314). It is the oldest surviving church in the world. Due to the fact that the pope is also the bishop of Rome, Saint John in Lateran is also Rome's Cathedral.
The present structure of the Basilica resembles the Saint Peter's basilica. The original plan had already five aisles. The ancient church was residence of the popes until the coming back from the exile in Avignone (1377), when it was moved to the Vatican. It was pillage-stock of the Visigoths (410), the Vandals (455); the earthquake in 896 caused the central aisle roof to collapse (rebuilt under pope Sergio III in 904-911).
Put on fire in 1308 first and in 1361 then, it was remade under the pontificate of Gregorio XI (1370-1378), following the plan of the ancient structure that had by then become a ruin. The repair works continued during the entire fifteenth century and the sumptuous ceiling was realized in 1562.
Sisto V (1585-1590) ordered the construction of the Blessings Lodge (positioned at the end of right side aisle), and the making of the Lateranense building assigning the project to Domenico Fontana.
After about 140 years Pope Innocenzo X Pamphili (1644-1655) decided in 1646 to bring the cathedral to new splendour entrusting Francesco Borromini of the repair. The architect was supposed to finish the works in time for the Holy Year of 1650 and had to reserve (according to the pacts with the pope) the structure of the ancient Basilica of St John Lateran. The artist put 12 niches spaced up by 5 huge arches supported by as many pillars in the mid aisle.
The great statues of the Apostles that we can admire today in the borrominian niches were made by sculptors of the late baroque in the beginning of 1700.
In 1731 Pope Clement XII summons a competition for the new façade of Saint John in Lateran. The winner without too much merit was the Florentine Alessandro Galilei who in 1735 finishes the works of the present façade. Under the ogival tabernacle (at the end of the central aisle, in the transept) is the papal altar where only the Pope can give mass. Above the sacramental altar there's a fragment of the table on which Jesus consumed the last supper. The Cathedral hosts also Jesus' blood, brought to Rome by centurion Longino. Numerous are the chapels of noble families realized by some of the best artists of the different epochs. In the intermediate right aisle, close to the first pillar, one can admire Boniface VIII proclaims the Jubilee of 1300, a fresco made by Giotto.References:
The Moszna Castle is one of the best known monuments in the western part of Upper Silesia. The history of this building begins in the 17th century, although much older cellars were found in the gardens during excavations carried out at the beginning of the 20th century. Some of the investigators, including H. Barthel, claimed that those cellars could have been remnants of a presumed Templar castle, but their theory has never been proved. After World War II, further excavations discovered a medieval palisade.
The central part of the castle is an old baroque palace which was partially destroyed by fire on the night of April 2, 1896 and was reconstructed in the same year in its original form by Franz Hubert von Tiele-Winckler. The reconstruction works involved an extension of the residence. The eastern Neogothic-styled wing of the building was built by 1900, along with an adjacent orangery. In 1912-1914, the western wing was built in the Neo-Renaissance style. The architectural form of the castle contains a wide variety of styles, thus it can be generally defined as eclectic.
The height of the building, as well as its numerous turrets and spires, give the impression of verticalism. The whole castle has exactly ninety-nine turrets. Inside, it contains 365 rooms. The castle was twice visited by the German Emperor Wilhelm II. His participation in hunting during his stay at the castle was documented in a hand-written chronicle in 1911 as well as in the following year. The castle in Moszna was the residence of a Silesian family Tiele-Winckler who were industrial magnates, from 1866 until the spring of 1945 when they were forced to move to Germany and the castle was occupied by the Red Army. The period of the Soviet control caused significant damage to the castle's internal fittings in comparison to the minor damage caused by WWII.
After World War II the castle did not have a permanent owner and was the home of various institutions until 1972 when it became a convalescent home. Later it became a Public Health Care Centre for Therapies of Neuroses. Nowadays it can be visited by tourists since the health institution has moved to another building in the neighbourhood. The castle also has a chapel which is used as a concert hall. Since 1998 the castle housed a gallery in which works of various artists are presented at regular exhibitions.
Apart from the castle itself, the entire complex includes a park which has no precise boundaries and includes nearby fields, meadows and a forest. Only the main axis of the park can be characterised as geometrical. Starting from the gate, it leads along the oak and then horse-chestnut avenues, towards the castle. Further on, the park passes into an avenue of lime trees with symmetrical canals running along both sides of the path, lined with a few varieties of rhododendrons. The axis of the park terminates at the base of a former monument of Hubert von Tiele-Winckler. On the eastern side of the avenue there is a pond with an islet referred to by the owners as Easter Island. The islet is planted with needle-leaved shrubs and can be reached by a Chinese-styled bridge. The garden, as part of the whole park complex was restored slightly earlier than the castle itself. Preserved documents of 1868 state that the improvement in the garden's aesthetic quality was undertaken by Hubert von Tiele-Winckler.