Bruneck (Brunico) Castle lies on the top of the hill that dominates Brunico, the city on the Rienza river. In the middle of the 13th century , the bishop of Bressanone, Bruno von Kirchberg, commissioned the building of the castle in order to protect his lands in the Val Pusteria, laying the foundations for the city of Brunico.
The interiors of the castle host numerous emblems of the bishops who lived here: Albert von Enna (1323-1326), Ulrich Putsch (1427-1437), Andreas of Austria (1591-1600), the bishops of Spaur and Welsperg. All of them contributed to the building of the castle, either by extending or restoring it.Unfortunately, many of the frescos in the rooms and halls of the castle are poorly preserved. However, the unique atmosphere of the castle still attracts many visitors.
In July 2011 the fifth MMM, Messner Mountain Museum, was opened at Brunico Castle. Its interactive collection mainly focuses on the everyday culture of mountain people like Sherpas, Indios, Tibetans, Mongols and Hunzas.References:
Narikala is an ancient fortress overlooking Tbilisi, the capital of Georgia, and the Kura River. The fortress consists of two walled sections on a steep hill between the sulphur baths and the botanical gardens of Tbilisi. On the lower court there is the recently restored St Nicholas church. Newly built in 1996–1997, it replaces the original 13th-century church that was destroyed in a fire. The new church is of 'prescribed cross' type, having doors on three sides. The internal part of the church is decorated with the frescos showing scenes both from the Bible and history of Georgia.
The fortress was established in the 4th century and it was a Persian citadel. It was considerably expanded by the Umayyads in the 7th century and later, by king David the Builder (1089–1125). Most of extant fortifications date from the 16th and 17th centuries. In 1827, parts of the fortress were damaged by an earthquake and demolished.