The Clock Tower of Podgorica is one of the very few Ottoman landmarks that survived the bombing of Podgorica in World War II. It was built in 1667, by Adži-paša Osmanagić, a prominent citizen of Podgorica. It is a freestanding 19m tall stone clock tower. Its current turret clock mechanism was made in 1890 by Pietro Colbachini foundry in Italy, after Podgorica was incorporated into Montenegro. Around the same time, a metal cross was installed at the top of the tower, symbolizing transfer of the city from the Ottomans into the hands of Christian Montenegrins.
Today, the clock tower is an important cultural monument of Montenegro, protected by law.References:
Narikala is an ancient fortress overlooking Tbilisi, the capital of Georgia, and the Kura River. The fortress consists of two walled sections on a steep hill between the sulphur baths and the botanical gardens of Tbilisi. On the lower court there is the recently restored St Nicholas church. Newly built in 1996–1997, it replaces the original 13th-century church that was destroyed in a fire. The new church is of 'prescribed cross' type, having doors on three sides. The internal part of the church is decorated with the frescos showing scenes both from the Bible and history of Georgia.
The fortress was established in the 4th century and it was a Persian citadel. It was considerably expanded by the Umayyads in the 7th century and later, by king David the Builder (1089–1125). Most of extant fortifications date from the 16th and 17th centuries. In 1827, parts of the fortress were damaged by an earthquake and demolished.