Santa Maria Antiqua

Rome, Italy

Located at the foot of the Palatine Hill, Santa Maria Antiqua is the oldest and most significant Christian monument in the Roman Forum. The church was abandoned in the 9th century after an earthquake buried the buildings; it remained sealed for over 1000 years until its rediscovery in the early 20th century. Therefore, Santa Maria Antiqua represents a key element for the understanding of the cultural and urban development of the Roman Forum from Antiquity into the first centuries of the Christian period. Following a conservation program, the church is now open for tours.

The church contains a unique collection of wall paintings from the 6th to late 8th century. The discovery of these paintings have given many theories on the development of early medieval art and given distinctive beliefs in archaeology. The church has the earliest Roman depiction of Santa Maria Regina, the Virgin Mary as a Queen, from the 6th century.

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Details

Founded: 5th century
Category: Religious sites in Italy

Rating

4.4/5 (based on Google user reviews)

User Reviews

Ivo Hermsen (2 months ago)
Voor mij een van de mooiste dingen die te zien zijn op het forum. Een van de oudste kerken in Rome die dankzij een aardbeving nog redelijk bewaard is gebleven. Met lichttechnieken worden oude fresco’s tot leven geroepen. Alleen al de gang ernaartoe is de moeite waard. Zorg dat je een super ticket hebt voor de toegang. Jammer dat anderen een slechte beoordeling geven omdat het gesloten was, dit doet dit schitterende monument te kort.
Giulia Pellegrini (2 months ago)
Bellissima esperienza, ben spiegata coi suoi 7 strati decorativi succedutisi nel tempo. Da non perdere, grazie al biglietto S.U.P.E.R.!
Carmine DpC (6 months ago)
La Basilica di Santa Maria Antiqua da poco più di due anni ha riaperto al pubblico i suoi splendori dopo oltre trent’anni. La spettacolare basilica, scoperta da Giacomo Boni nel 1900 alle pendici del Palatino, ha nelle pitture che rivestono le sue pareti uno stupendo esempio unico nel mondo cristiano del primo millennio. Pitture perfettamente restaurate e databili tra il VI e IX secolo dopo Cristo, IX secolo che coincide con il suo abbandono a seguito dei crolli causati dal terremoto dell’847. Luogo assolutamente da vedere ed ammirare.
Mariamaddalena Blandini (6 months ago)
Domenica 4 novembre, prima domenica del mese musei gratuiti, ponte dei morti.... ed è chiusa. Meno male che si era tanto sbandierato la riapertura dopo 30 anni. Se volete vederla informatevi prima su date di apertura. Dispiace per a una struttura così importante.
Patrizia Colangeli (6 months ago)
Roma Fori Imperiali. Chiesa cattolica che custodisce un ritratto di Maria con bambinello catalogati tra i più antichi. La chiesa fu costruita sopra un tempio pagano.
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The Cathedral of Limburg is one of the best preserved late Romanesque style buildings. It is unknown When the first church was built above the Lahn river. Archaeological discoveries have revealed traces of a 9th-century church building in the area of the current chapel. It was probably built in Merovingian times as a castle and the chapel added in the early 9th century.

In 910 AD, Count Konrad Kurzbold (cousin of the future King Konrad I) founded a collegiate chapter of 18 canons, who lived according to the rule of Bishop Chrodegang of Metz, on the hilltop site. The original castle chapel was torn down and a three-aisled basilica was built in its place. The foundations of this basilica have been found beneath the present floor.

The construction of current cathedral is dated to 1180-90. The consecration was performed in 1235 by the archbishop of Trier. It seems certain that the cathedral was built in four stages. The first stage encompassed the west facade, the south side aisle, the choir and the transept up to the matroneum. This section forms the Conradine church. The second stage consisted of the addition of the inner pillars of the south nave. In this stage the bound system was first introduced. In the third phase, the matroneum in the southern nave was built. The fourth stage included the north side of the transept and the choir matroneum. By this stage Gothic influence is very clear.

The interior was destroyed by Swedish soldiers during the Thirty Years War (1618-48) and reconstructed in a late Baroque style in 1749. The Baroque renovation was heavy-handed: the surviving medieval stained glass windows were replaced; all the murals were covered up; the ribs of the vaults and columns of the arcades were painted blue and red; the capstones were gilded; the original high altar was replaced. The colorfully painted exterior was coated in plain white and the central tower was extended by 6.5 meters.

The collegiate chapter of Limburg was dissolved in 1803 during the Napoleonic period, but then raised to the rank of cathedral in 1827 when the bishopric of Limburg was founded. Some renovations in contemporary style followed: the walls were coated white, the windows were redone in blue and orange (the heraldic colors of the Duke of Nassau) and towers were added to the south transept (1865).

Further changes came after Limburg was incorporated into the Kingdom of Prussia in 1866. It was now the Romantic period and the cathedral was accordingly restored to an idealized vision of its original Romanesque appearance. The exterior stonework was stripped of all its plaster and paint, to better conform with the Romantic ideal of a medieval church growing out of the rock. The Baroque interior was stripped away and the wall paintings were uncovered and repainted.

Further renovations came in 1934-35, enlightened by better knowledge of the original art and architecture. Art Nouveau stained glass windows were also added. A major restoration in 1965-90 included replastering and painting the exterior, both to restore it to its original appearance and to protect the stonework, which was rapidly deteriorating while exposed to the elements.

The interior is covered in medieval frescoes dating from 1220 to 1235. They are magnificent and important survivals, but time has not been terribly kind to them - they were whitewashed over in the Baroque period (1749) and uncovered and repainted with a heavy hand in the Romantic period (1870s) before finally being restored more sensitively in the 1980s.