There has been a castle or stronghold in Johannesberg since the 11th century. The hill surrounded by water has been easy to defend. During the 12th century a chief named Gutti lived here and the whole area became Gutti´s area, later on Gottröra, which is the name of the place today. Gutti divided the area into two parts, the south and the north. The south part – presently Johannesberg – was called Djursby.
The owner of Djursby during the later part of the 17th century was Johan Leijonhufvud. He gave the estate to a close relative, Adam Lewenhaupt, who named it Johannesberg after Johan Leijonhufvud. Lewenhaupt died in Russian captivity and was never to see Johannesberg again. After Lewenhaupt the estate was owned by different nobility families – Banér, Gyllenstierna, Horn af Åminne and Lagergren. At the end of the 19th century Johannesberg was taken over by a Mr Grönwall, a wholesale dealer. During his time the main building unfortunately burnt down. The next owner, Mr Conti, built the present mail building around the turn of the century.
The estate was bought in 1930’s by Bergengren, who at the end of the decade owned many estates in Sweden, England and France. Bergengren is still the owner of the agricultural part of Johannesberg.
During World War II Bergengren rented out the main building and several crofters cottages to the Swedish government and under the management of the manager for the Criminal Technical Institution, Harry Söderman, Norwegian refugees were here officially beeing educated to police men. In fact they were educated to join the resistance movement. At the maximum there were about 1500 Norwegians here for education. Many of them have through comrade clubs kept in touch with each other after their return to Norway. They have collected money and this resulted in a monument beeing raised in the castle park at Johannesberg in June 1990.
In 1987 Johannesberg was bought by a private company. It was restored, the two wings were built ant the estate was ready to take into use in the springtime 1989. The golf course with 27 holes was set up and opened in 1991. A club house with swimming pool was ready at the same time. The castle is owned and operated since 1995 by the family Manfred and Mariette Kuhl.References:
Roman Walls of Lugo are an exceptional architectural, archaeological and constructive legacy of Roman engineering, dating from the 3rd and 4th centuries AD. The Walls are built of internal and external stone facings of slate with some granite, with a core filling of a conglomerate of slate slabs and worked stone pieces from Roman buildings, interlocked with lime mortar.
Their total length of 2117 m in the shape of an oblong rectangle occupies an area of 1.68 ha. Their height varies between 8 and 10 m, with a width of 4.2 m, reaching 7 m in some specific points. The walls still contain 85 external towers, 10 gates (five of which are original and five that were opened in modern times), four staircases and two ramps providing access to the walkway along the top of the walls, one of which is internal and the other external. Each tower contained access stairs leading from the intervallum to the wall walk of town wall, of which a total of 21 have been discovered to date.
The defences of Lugo are the most complete and best preserved example of Roman military architecture in the Western Roman Empire.
Despite the renovation work carried out, the walls conserve their original layout and the construction features associated with their defensive purpose, with walls, battlements, towers, fortifications, both modern and original gates and stairways, and a moat.
Since they were built, the walls have defined the layout and growth of the city, which was declared a Historical-Artistic Ensemble in 1973, forming a part of it and becoming an emblematic structure that can be freely accessed to walk along. The local inhabitants and visitors alike have used them as an area for enjoyment and as a part of urban life for centuries.
The fortifications were added to UNESCO"s World Heritage List in late 2000 and are a popular tourist attraction.