Union with Norway and Modernization

History of Sweden between 1810 - 1905

In 1810 French Marshal Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte, one of Napoleon's top generals, was elected Crown Prince Charles by the Riksdag. In 1813, his forces joined the allies against Napoleon and defeated the Danes at Bornhöved. In the Treaty of Kiel, Denmark ceded mainland Norway to the Swedish king. Norway, however, declared its independence, adopted a constitution and chose a new king. Sweden invaded Norway to enforce the terms of the Kiel treaty—it was the last war Sweden ever fought.

After brief fighting, the peace established a personal union between the two states. Even though they shared the same king, Norway was largely independent of Sweden, except Sweden controlled foreign affairs. The king's rule was not well received and when Sweden refused to allow Norway to have its own diplomats, Norway rejected the King of Sweden in 1905 and selected its own king. During Charles XIV reign (1818–1844), the first stage of the Industrial Revolution reached Sweden. This first take-off was founded on rural forges, textile proto-industries and sawmills.

The 19th century was marked by the emergence of a liberal opposition press, the abolition of guild monopolies in trade and manufacturing in favor of free enterprise, the introduction of taxation and voting reforms, the installation of a national military service, and the rise in the electorate of three major party groups—Social Democratic Party, Liberal Party, and Conservative Party.

Modernization

Sweden — much like Japan at the same time — transformed from a stagnant rural society to a vibrant industrial society between the 1860s and 1910. The agricultural economy shifted gradually from communal village to a more efficient private farm-based agriculture. There was fewer need for manual labor on the farm so many went to the cities; and about 1 million Swedes emigrated to the United States between 1850 and 1890. Many returned and brought word of the higher productivity of American industry, thus stimulating faster modernization.

The late 19th century saw the emergence of an opposition press, the abolition of guild monopolies on craftsmen, and the reform of taxation. Two years of military service was made compulsory for young men, though there was no warfare.

Early 20th century

With a broader voting franchise, the nation saw the emergence of three major party groups – Social Democrat, Liberal, and Conservative. The parties debated further expansion of the voting franchise. The Liberal Party, based on the middle class, in 1907 put forth a program for local voting rights later accepted in the Riksdag; the majority of Liberals wanted to require some property ownership before a man could vote. The Social Democrats called for total male suffrage without property limitations. The strong farmer representation in the Second Chamber of the Riksdag maintained a conservative view, but their decline after 1900 gradually ended opposition to full suffrage.

Religion maintained a major role but public school religious education changed from drill in the Lutheran catechism to biblical-ethical studies.

Reference: Wikipedia

Popular sites founded between 1810 and 1905 in Sweden

Saint Eric's Cathedral

Saint Eric's Cathedral is a Roman Catholic cathedral located on Södermalm. It was built in 1892 and was raised to the status of a cathedral in 1953, when the Roman Catholic Diocese of Stockholm was created (still the only one in Sweden). The substantial increase in the number of Catholics in Stockholm and Sweden, mostly as a result of immigration after World War II, made the old church insufficient, and an extension, ...
Founded: 1892 | Location: Stockholm, Sweden

St. Paul's Church

St. Paul's Church, also known as St. Paul's Chapel, is an 1876 Methodist church located in Mariatorget, a square and a city park in Södermalm, central Stockholm. The church was designed by the Swedish architects and brothers Axel and Hjalmar Kumlien.
Founded: 1876 | Location: Stockholm, Sweden

Skeppsholmskyrkan

Skeppsholmskyrkan is a church on the islet of Skeppsholmen, secularized in 2002. Named after its location, the church was built 1823-1849 to replace a minor wooden church on Blasieholmen destroyed in the devastating fire of 1822. Inaugurated by King Charles XIV John and still officially carrying his name, it was designed by the architect Fredrik Blom as a neoclassical octahedral temple inspired by the Pantheon in Rome, bo ...
Founded: 1823-1849 | Location: Stockholm, Sweden

Karl Johan Church

The church of Karl Johan was built between 1824-1826 according the design of Fredrik Blom. It has been restored in 1840, 1900, 1912 and 1938. The organs were added in 1863. The wall paintings have been made by Albert Eldh.
Founded: 1824-1826 | Location: Gothenburg, Sweden

Rosendal Palace

Rosendal Palace (Rosendals slott) is a Swedish royal pavilion located at the Djurgården, an island in central Stockholm. It was built between 1823 and 1827 for King Karl XIV Johan, the first Bernadotte King of Sweden. It was intended as an escape from the formalities of court life at the Royal Palace. Rosendal Palace was largely designed by Fredrik Blom, one of the leading architects of the time, who received a roy ...
Founded: 1823-1827 | Location: Stockholm, Sweden

Gothenburg Cathedral

Gothenburg Cathedral (Gustavi domkyrka or Göteborgs domkyrka) lies near the heart of the city. The cathedral was built in 1815 and replaced an earlier cathedral built in the 17th century. The architect was Carl Willhelm Carlberg. The cathedral is a fine example of neoclassical architecture. It is one of the top tourist destinations in the city. The Cathedral acts as a venue for a wide range of classical concerts an ...
Founded: 1815 | Location: Gothenburg, Sweden

Skansen Open Air Museum

Skansen is the first open air museum and zoo in Sweden. It was founded in 1891 by Artur Hazelius (1833-1901) to show the way of life in the different parts of Sweden before the industrial era. Skansen attracts more than 1.3 million visitors each year. The many exhibits over the 75 acre (300,000 m²) site include a full replica of an average 19th-century town, in which craftsmen in traditional dress such as tanners, sh ...
Founded: 1891 | Location: Stockholm, Sweden

Uppsala University

The University Main Building was built in the 1880s. Parliament had allocated funding, and King Oscar II laid the cornerstone in pouring rain on a spring day in 1879. The site was formerly occupied by a large academic riding building, which was torn down for the new edifice. On May 17, 1887 the building was inaugurated at a festive ceremony. The architect was Herman Teodor Holmgren. What he created was a grand and statel ...
Founded: 1880's | Location: Uppsala, Sweden

Umeå City Hall

Umeå City Hall (Umeå rådhus) was built after the great fire, which damaged the city in 1888. It was completed in 1890. The architect was Fredrik Olaus Lindström and the hall is inspired by Dutch Renaissance.
Founded: 1890 | Location: Umeå, Sweden

Lund University Main Building

The city of Lund has a long history as a center for learning and was the ecclesiastical centre and seat of the archbishop of Denmark. A cathedral school for the training of clergy was established in 1085 and is today Scandinavia's oldest school. A studium generale (a medieval university education) was founded in 1425, although it was not until 1438 that education was started by the Franciscan order for a baccalaureus degr ...
Founded: 1882 | Location: Lund, Sweden

Gotland Museum

The fine Gotlands Fornsal Museum provides comprehensive coverage of Visby's past. Housed in an 18th century distillery and a medieval warehouse, it holds five storeys of exhibition halls covering eight thousand years of history, as well as a good courtyard café and bookshop. Among the most impressive sections are the Hall of Picture Stones, a collection of richly carved stones dating mostly from the 5th to 11th ce ...
Founded: 1875 | Location: Visby, Sweden

Haga Church

The construction Haga Church (Hagakyrkan) began in 1856 and it was finished in 1859. The church and the pulpit were designed by architect Adolf W. Edelsvärd. The church represents the Gothic revival architecture style. The first organ was installed in 1861 by the Danish firm Marcussen & Søn for the price of 20 000 Swedish crowns. It was rebuilt in 1911 (pneumatic action) and 1945-1951 (electric action) by ...
Founded: 1856-1859 | Location: Gothenburg, Sweden

St. Paul's Church

The Church of St. Paul was built in 1882. It was at the time considered to be almost "for free". Due to increasing population a church was needed and a cheaply designed one was quickly built. It is a round-church, shaped like a circle.
Founded: 1882 | Location: Malmö, Sweden

Uddevalla Church

The Neoclassical Uddevalla Church was built in 1810-1814. The architect was Gustaf af Sillén. It replaced a 17th century stone church on the same site that was largely destroyed by the great fire in the city a few years earlier. The altarpiece is a painting by Frederic Westin.
Founded: 1810-1814 | Location: Uddevalla, Sweden

Boo Castle

Boo fideikommiss (estate in tail) was founded in 1735. The first owner was one of the generals of the Swedish king Charles XII, baron H. J. Hamilton. After imprisonment in Russia he took up residence at Boo. Thereafter the estate has been inherited within the family Hamilton af Hageby. The current Boo Castle was built to the grounds of older manor house in 1874-1882. The Neo-Gothic building was designed by Johan Fredrik & ...
Founded: 1874-1882 | Location: Hallsberg, Sweden

Boden Fortress

Boden fortress was one of Sweden"s largest military building projects of all times. It was built between 1901–1916 against the threat of Russia and consists of several major and minor forts and fortifications surrounding the city of Boden. The fortress was originally intended to stop or delay attacks from the east or coastal assaults, which at the time of construction meant Russian attacks launched from Finland ...
Founded: 1901-1916 | Location: Boden, Sweden

Ängelholm Church

Luntertun, the old town at the mouth of the River Rönne å, features the ruins of the medieval predecessor of Ängelholm church. The only fixture from Luntertun is the church tower from 1470. The present church was built in 1868, and the interior is from 1941. Altar screen and stained glass have been made by Torsten Nordberg.
Founded: 1868 | Location: Ängelholm, Sweden

Småland Museum

Småland Museum is the oldest county museum in Sweden. It opened in the present building in 1885. Permanent exhibitions display the history of Småland from the Stone Ages through the silver treasure of Vikings to 19th and 20th century living style. There is also a glass museum.
Founded: 1885 | Location: Växjö, Sweden

Luleå Cathedral

Luleå Cathedral serves the Diocese of Luleå and the local Church of Sweden parish. It was consecrated in 1893. The church was originally named Oscar Fredrik Church (Oscar Fredriks kyrka), after the King Oscar (Fredrik) II. It became cathedral when the Diocese of Luleå was formed in 1904.
Founded: 1893 | Location: Luleå, Sweden

Eksjö Church

Eksjö Church was built in the later part of the 19th century to the designs of architect J. F. Åbom. Much of the inventory was retained from the earlier church that stood on the site, whose structure is partly incorporated. The altarpiece and pulpit are both 17th century works. The organ facade dates from the 18th century. The church is a popular venue for organ recitals. It stands in the heart of the town.
Founded: 1887-1889 | Location: Eksjö, Sweden

Pershyttan

Pershyttan is a small mining town which has been restored and kept mainly as a working museum of Bergslagen"s mining and iron handling which started in the early 14th century. One of Sweden"s best preserved charcoal-fuelled blast furnaces from 1856 can be found in Pershyttan. In the area is there is also one of the biggest working water wheels.
Founded: 19th century | Location: Nora, Sweden

Örnsköldsvik Museum

Örnsköldsvik Museum contains of a museum and art gallery. The Jugend style museum building was completed in 1905 by Albert Thurdin. The museum displays local history and has temporary international exhibitions.
Founded: 1905 | Location: Örnsköldsvik, Sweden

Arboga Museum

In 1846 the merchant Anders Öhrström built a lavish residence for himself and his family – The Öhrström estate (Öhrströms gård) on Nygatan has been meticulously renovated and its period rooms and features are a true asset to Arboga. The estate is now home to Arboga Museum. The museum also houses a large photographic archive and library in addition to modern facilities for exhibit ...
Founded: 1846 | Location: Arboga, Sweden

Carolina Rediviva

Carolina Rediviva is the main building of the Uppsala University Library in Uppsala, Sweden. The building was begun in 1820 and completed in 1841. The original architect was Carl Fredrik Sundvall. Later additions to the building have been designed by Axel Johan Anderberg and Peter Celsing. The name, literally "Carolina Revived", was given in remembrance of the old Academia Carolina building, which had functioned as univer ...
Founded: 1820-1841 | Location: Uppsala, Sweden

Featured Historic Landmarks, Sites & Buildings

Historic Site of the week

Castle de Haar

Castle de Haar is the largest and most fairytale-like castle in the Netherlands. The current buildings, all built upon the original castle, date from 1892 and are the work of Dutch architect P.J.H. Cuypers, in a Neo-Gothic restoration project funded by the Rothschild family.

The oldest historical record of a building at the location of the current castle dates to 1391. In that year, the family De Haar received the castle and the surrounding lands as fiefdom from Hendrik van Woerden. The castle remained in the ownership of the De Haar family until 1440, when the last male heir died childless. The castle then passed to the Van Zuylen family. In 1482, the castle was burned down and the walls were torn down, except for the parts that did not have a military function. These parts probably were incorporated into the castle when it was rebuilt during the early 16th century. The castle is mentioned in an inventory of the possessions of Steven van Zuylen from 1506, and again in a list of fiefdoms in the province Utrecht from 1536. The oldest image of the castle dates to 1554 and shows that the castle had been largely rebuilt by then. After 1641, when Johan van Zuylen van der Haar died childless, the castle seems to have gradually fallen into ruins. The castle escaped from total destruction by the French during the Rampjaar 1672.

In 1801 the last catholic van Zuylen in the Netherlands, the bachelor Anton-Martinus van Zuylen van Nijevelt (1708-1801) bequeathed the property to his cousin Jean-Jacques van Zuylen van Nyevelt (1752-1846) of the catholic branch in the Southern Netherlands. In 1890, De Haar was inherited by Jean-Jacques' grandson Etienne Gustave Frédéric Baron van Zuylen van Nyevelt van de Haar (1860-1934), who married Baroness Hélène de Rothschild. They contracted architect Pierre Cuypers in 1892 to rebuild the ruinous castle, which took 15 years.

In 1887, the inheritor of the castle-ruins, Etienne van Zuylen van Nijevelt, married Hélène de Rothschild, of theRothschild family. Fully financed by Hélène's family, the Rothschilds, the couple set about rebuilding the castle from its ruins. For the restoration of the castle, the famous architect Pierre Cuypers was hired. He would be working on this project for 20 years (from 1892 to 1912). The castle has 200 rooms and 30 bathrooms, of which only a small number on the ground floor have been opened to be viewed by the public. In the hall, Cuypers has placed a statue with his own image in a corner of the gallery on the first floor.

The castle was equipped by Cuypers with the most modern gadgets, such as electrical lighting with its own generator, and central heating by way of steam. This installation is internationally recognized as an industrial monument. The kitchen was for that period also very modern and still has a large collection of copper pots and pans and an enormous furnace of approximately 6 metres long, which is heated with peat or coals. The tiles in the kitchen are decorated with the coats of arms of the families De Haar and Van Zuylen, which were for this purpose especially baked in Franeker. Cuypers marked out the difference between the old walls and the new bricks, by using a different kind of brick for the new walls. For the interior Cuypers made a lot of use of cast iron.

In the castle one can see many details which reminds one of the family De Rothschild, such as the David stars on the balconies of the knight's hall, the motto of the family on the hearth in the knight's hall (A majoribus et virtute) and the coat of arms of the family right underneath on the hearth in the library.

The interior of the castle is decorated with richly ornamented woodcarving, which reminds one of the interior of a Roman Catholic church. This carving was made in the workshop of Cuypers in Roermond. The place where later also the interiors of many Roman Catholic churches were made, designed by Cuypers. Cuypers even designed the tableware. The interior is also furnished with many works of the Rothschild collections, including beautiful old porcelain from Japan and China, and several old Flemish tapestries and paintings with religious illustrations. A showpiece is a carrier coach of the woman of a Shogun from Japan. There is only one more left in the world, which stands in a museum in Tokyo. Many Japanese tourists come to De Haar to admire exactly this coach, which was donated from the Rothschilds collections.

Surrounding the castle there is a park, designed by Hendrik Copijn, for which Van Zuylen ordered 7000 fully grown trees. Because these could not be transported through the city of Utrecht, Van Zuylen bought a house and tore it down. The park contains many waterworks and a formal garden which reminds one of the French gardens of Versailles. During the Second World War many of the gardens were lost, because the wood was used to light fires, and the soil was used to grow vegetables upon. At this time, the gardens are restored in their old splendor.

For the decoration of the park, the village Haarzuilens, except for the town church, was broken down. The inhabitants were moved to a place a kilometer further up, where a new Haarzuilens arose, where they lived as tenants of the lord of the castle. This new village was also built in a pseudo-medieval style, including a rural village green. The buildings were for the most part designed by Cuypers and his son Joseph Cuypers.