Union with Norway and Modernization

History of Sweden between 1810 - 1905

In 1810 French Marshal Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte, one of Napoleon's top generals, was elected Crown Prince Charles by the Riksdag. In 1813, his forces joined the allies against Napoleon and defeated the Danes at Bornhöved. In the Treaty of Kiel, Denmark ceded mainland Norway to the Swedish king. Norway, however, declared its independence, adopted a constitution and chose a new king. Sweden invaded Norway to enforce the terms of the Kiel treaty—it was the last war Sweden ever fought.

After brief fighting, the peace established a personal union between the two states. Even though they shared the same king, Norway was largely independent of Sweden, except Sweden controlled foreign affairs. The king's rule was not well received and when Sweden refused to allow Norway to have its own diplomats, Norway rejected the King of Sweden in 1905 and selected its own king. During Charles XIV reign (1818–1844), the first stage of the Industrial Revolution reached Sweden. This first take-off was founded on rural forges, textile proto-industries and sawmills.

The 19th century was marked by the emergence of a liberal opposition press, the abolition of guild monopolies in trade and manufacturing in favor of free enterprise, the introduction of taxation and voting reforms, the installation of a national military service, and the rise in the electorate of three major party groups—Social Democratic Party, Liberal Party, and Conservative Party.

Modernization

Sweden — much like Japan at the same time — transformed from a stagnant rural society to a vibrant industrial society between the 1860s and 1910. The agricultural economy shifted gradually from communal village to a more efficient private farm-based agriculture. There was fewer need for manual labor on the farm so many went to the cities; and about 1 million Swedes emigrated to the United States between 1850 and 1890. Many returned and brought word of the higher productivity of American industry, thus stimulating faster modernization.

The late 19th century saw the emergence of an opposition press, the abolition of guild monopolies on craftsmen, and the reform of taxation. Two years of military service was made compulsory for young men, though there was no warfare.

Early 20th century

With a broader voting franchise, the nation saw the emergence of three major party groups – Social Democrat, Liberal, and Conservative. The parties debated further expansion of the voting franchise. The Liberal Party, based on the middle class, in 1907 put forth a program for local voting rights later accepted in the Riksdag; the majority of Liberals wanted to require some property ownership before a man could vote. The Social Democrats called for total male suffrage without property limitations. The strong farmer representation in the Second Chamber of the Riksdag maintained a conservative view, but their decline after 1900 gradually ended opposition to full suffrage.

Religion maintained a major role but public school religious education changed from drill in the Lutheran catechism to biblical-ethical studies.

Reference: Wikipedia

Popular sites founded between 1810 and 1905 in Sweden

Skansen Open Air Museum

Skansen is the first open air museum and zoo in Sweden. It was founded in 1891 by Artur Hazelius (1833-1901) to show the way of life in the different parts of Sweden before the industrial era. Skansen attracts more than 1.3 million visitors each year. The many exhibits over the 75 acre (300,000 m²) site include a full replica of an average 19th-century town, in which craftsmen in traditional dress such as tanners, sh ...
Founded: 1891 | Location: Stockholm, Sweden

Hallwyl Palace

The Hallwyl Palace was built 1893-1898 to the design of Isak Gustaf Clason for Count Walther von Hallwyl and his wife Wilhelmina. It was created to accommodate the office of the count and the extensive art collection of the countess. While the exterior of the building and the court is historical in style — borrowing architectonic elements from medieval prototypes and Renaissance Venice — it was technically utterly mod ...
Founded: 1893-1898 | Location: Stockholm, Sweden

Skeppsholmskyrkan

Skeppsholmskyrkan is a church on the islet of Skeppsholmen, secularized in 2002. Named after its location, the church was built 1823-1849 to replace a minor wooden church on Blasieholmen destroyed in the devastating fire of 1822. Inaugurated by King Charles XIV John and still officially carrying his name, it was designed by the architect Fredrik Blom as a neoclassical octahedral temple inspired by the Pantheon in Rome, bo ...
Founded: 1823-1849 | Location: Stockholm, Sweden

Saint Eric's Cathedral

Saint Eric's Cathedral is a Roman Catholic cathedral located on Södermalm. It was built in 1892 and was raised to the status of a cathedral in 1953, when the Roman Catholic Diocese of Stockholm was created (still the only one in Sweden). The substantial increase in the number of Catholics in Stockholm and Sweden, mostly as a result of immigration after World War II, made the old church insufficient, and an extension, ...
Founded: 1892 | Location: Stockholm, Sweden

St. Paul's Church

St. Paul's Church, also known as St. Paul's Chapel, is an 1876 Methodist church located in Mariatorget, a square and a city park in Södermalm, central Stockholm. The church was designed by the Swedish architects and brothers Axel and Hjalmar Kumlien.
Founded: 1876 | Location: Stockholm, Sweden

Gothenburg Cathedral

Gothenburg Cathedral (Gustavi domkyrka or Göteborgs domkyrka) lies near the heart of the city. The cathedral was built in 1815 and replaced an earlier cathedral built in the 17th century. The architect was Carl Willhelm Carlberg. The cathedral is a fine example of neoclassical architecture. It is one of the top tourist destinations in the city. The Cathedral acts as a venue for a wide range of classical concerts and reci ...
Founded: 1815 | Location: Gothenburg, Sweden

K.A. Almgren Silk Weaving

The silk mill of K.A. Almgren is one the oldest preserved industrial environments in Scandinavia and the only remaining mill north of the Alps. It was founded by Knut August Almgren in 1833 when he got the license to manufacture silk products. only couple of decades later the silk mill was Scandinavias largest workplace for women. The same family produced silk during five generations. The weawing mill was closed down in ...
Founded: 1833 | Location: Stockholm, Sweden

Gotland Museum

The fine Gotlands Fornsal Museum provides comprehensive coverage of Visby's past. Housed in an 18th century distillery and a medieval warehouse, it holds five storeys of exhibition halls covering eight thousand years of history, as well as a good courtyard café and bookshop. Among the most impressive sections are the Hall of Picture Stones, a collection of richly carved stones dating mostly from the 5th to 11th ce ...
Founded: 1875 | Location: Visby, Sweden

Lund University Main Building

The city of Lund has a long history as a center for learning and was the ecclesiastical centre and seat of the archbishop of Denmark. A cathedral school for the training of clergy was established in 1085 and is today Scandinavia's oldest school. A studium generale (a medieval university education) was founded in 1425, although it was not until 1438 that education was started by the Franciscan order for a baccalaureus degr ...
Founded: 1882 | Location: Lund, Sweden

Uppsala University

The University Main Building was built in the 1880s. Parliament had allocated funding, and King Oscar II laid the cornerstone in pouring rain on a spring day in 1879. The site was formerly occupied by a large academic riding building, which was torn down for the new edifice. On May 17, 1887 the building was inaugurated at a festive ceremony. The architect was Herman Teodor Holmgren. What he created was a grand and statel ...
Founded: 1880's | Location: Uppsala, Sweden

Umeå City Hall

Umeå City Hall (Umeå rådhus) was built after the great fire, which damaged the city in 1888. It was completed in 1890. The architect was Fredrik Olaus Lindström and the hall is inspired by Dutch Renaissance.
Founded: 1890 | Location: Umeå, Sweden

Kastellet

Kastellet is a small citadel located on the islet Kastellholmen. The first fortification on the location was built in 1667 designed by Erik Dahlbergh. It exploded in June 1845 and subsequently a new was built 1846-1848 to the design of architect Fredrik Blom. It consists of a round tower with red brick walls and a 20 meter high stair tower. On the top flies the Military Ensign of Sweden, it is hoisted and lowered every da ...
Founded: 1846-1848 | Location: Stockholm, Sweden

Haga Church

The construction Haga Church (Hagakyrkan) began in 1856 and it was finished in 1859. The church and the pulpit were designed by architect Adolf W. Edelsvärd. The church represents the Gothic revival architecture style. The first organ was installed in 1861 by the Danish firm Marcussen & Søn for the price of 20 000 Swedish crowns. It was rebuilt in 1911 (pneumatic action) and 1945-1951 (electric action) by ...
Founded: 1856-1859 | Location: Gothenburg, Sweden

Eksjö Church

Eksjö Church was built in the later part of the 19th century to the designs of architect J. F. Åbom. Much of the inventory was retained from the earlier church that stood on the site, whose structure is partly incorporated. The altarpiece and pulpit are both 17th century works. The organ facade dates from the 18th century. The church is a popular venue for organ recitals. It stands in the heart of the town.
Founded: 1887-1889 | Location: Eksjö, Sweden

Waldemarsudde Palace

Prins Eugens Waldemarsudde is a museum located on Djurgården in central Stockholm. It was the former home of the Swedish Prince Eugen, who discovered the place in 1892, when he rented a house there for a few days. Seven years later he bought the premises and had a new house designed by the architect Ferdinand Boberg, who also designed Rosenbad (the Prime Minister"s Office and the Government Chancellery), and erecte ...
Founded: 1903 | Location: Stockholm, Sweden

Carolina Rediviva

Carolina Rediviva is the main building of the Uppsala University Library in Uppsala, Sweden. The building was begun in 1820 and completed in 1841. The original architect was Carl Fredrik Sundvall. Later additions to the building have been designed by Axel Johan Anderberg and Peter Celsing. The name, literally "Carolina Revived", was given in remembrance of the old Academia Carolina building, which had functioned as univer ...
Founded: 1820-1841 | Location: Uppsala, Sweden

Oscar Fredrik Church

Oscar Fredrik Church was drawn by Helgo Zetterwall and completed in 1893. It represents the neo-Gothic style, but the influence is not the Nordic gothic style but rather the style one can find in the large cathedrals down in continental Europe. The church and the parish got its name from king Oscar II (Oscar Fredrik being his full name). The church has been refurbished three times: 1915, 1940 and 1974. The 1940 refurbish ...
Founded: 1893 | Location: Gothenburg, Sweden

Sofiero Castle

Sofiero Castle was one of the Swedish royal family's country mansions. It was originally a Scanian farm called Skabelycke, bought in 1864 by Crown Prince Oscar of Sweden and his wife Sophia of Nassau. The first one-story palace was completed in 1865. It was expanded to its current size between 1874 and 1876, after crown prince Oscar had been crowned king Oscar II of Sweden and Norway. In 1905, Oscar II's grandchild Princ ...
Founded: 1865 | Location: Helsingborg, Sweden

Blekinge County Museum

Blekinge Museum is a regional museum that was founded in 1899. Since 1972 it is housed in Grevagården, one of the oldest buildings and the only remaining town farm in Karlskrona. Grevagården was completed 1705 as the home of Admiral General Count Wachtmeister, one of the founders of Karlskrona. Since Blekinge is a marked coastal county with an archipelago, the maritime heritage is a chief focus. Blekinge muse ...
Founded: 1899 | Location: Karlskrona, Sweden

Arboga Museum

In 1846 the merchant Anders Öhrström built a lavish residence for himself and his family – The Öhrström estate (Öhrströms gård) on Nygatan has been meticulously renovated and its period rooms and features are a true asset to Arboga. The estate is now home to Arboga Museum. The museum also houses a large photographic archive and library in addition to modern facilities for exhibit ...
Founded: 1846 | Location: Arboga, Sweden

Tjolöholm Castle

Tjolöholm Castle is a country house built 1898-1904. It is located on a peninsula in the Kungsbacka Fjord on the Kattegat coast. Tjoloholm Castle was designed in the Arts and Crafts style by architect Lars Israel Wahlmann. In 2010, Danish film director Lars Von Trier shot the exterior scenes of the film Melancholia at the castle.
Founded: 1898-1904 | Location: Fjärås, Sweden

Allhelgonakyrkan

The neo-Gothic Allhelgonakyrkan (All Saints Church) was built between 1887 and 1891. The tower is 72m high and of the highest buildings in Lund.
Founded: 1887-1881 | Location: Lund, Sweden

Alnarp Castle

Alnarp Castle was originally built in the 12th century. In 1325 Alnarp came into the possession of a knight named Anders Pedersen, and then Aage Nielsen Ulfeldt in the early 15th century. In 1449, Alnarp passed into the ownership of Niels Stigsen Thott. The Ulfeldt and the Thott families were members of the Scanian nobility. The castle eventually passed to the Krummedige family, and in 1500 it was owned by Erik Krummedige ...
Founded: 1862 | Location: Lomma, Sweden

Långe Erik Lighthouse

Långe Erik ("Tall Erik") is a Swedish lighthouse built in 1845 and located on a little island, Stora grundet. The island is connected to Öland by a small bridge built in 1965. The older, larger lens is still installed, but no longer in use. The lens was used until the 1990s before an aerobeacon was installed on the lantern's balcony. The light is remote-controlled by the Swedish Maritime Administration. The tower is ope ...
Founded: 1845 | Location: Byxelkrok, Öland, Sweden

Featured Historic Landmarks, Sites & Buildings

Historic Site of the week

Montparnasse Cemetery

Montparnasse Cemetery was created from three farms in 1824. Cemeteries had been banned from Paris since the closure, owing to health concerns, of the Cimetière des Innocents in 1786. Several new cemeteries outside the precincts of the capital replaced all the internal Parisian ones in the early 19th century: Montmartre Cemetery in the north, Père Lachaise Cemetery in the east, and Montparnasse Cemetery in the south. At the heart of the city, and today sitting in the shadow of the Eiffel Tower, is Passy Cemetery.

Montparnasse cemetery is the burial place of many of France's intellectual and artistic elite as well as publishers and others who promoted the works of authors and artists. There are also many graves of foreigners who have made France their home, as well as monuments to police and firefighters killed in the line of duty in the city of Paris.

The cemetery is divided by Rue Émile Richard. The small section is usually referred to as the small cemetery (petit cimetière) and the large section as the big cemetery (grand cimetière).

Although Baudelaire is buried in this cemetery (division 6), there is also a cenotaph to him (between division 26 and 27). Because of the many notable people buried there, it is a highly popular tourist attraction.