Santa Maria Maggiore

Bergamo, Italy

Santa Maria Maggiore was founded in 1137 on the site of another church from the 8th century dedicated to St Mary, which had been in turn erected over a Roman temple of the Clemence. The high altar was consecrated in 1185 and in 1187 the presbytery and the transept wings were completed. Due to financial troubles, the works dragged for the whole 13th–14th centuries. The bell tower was built from 1436 (being completed around the end of the century), while in 1481–1491 a new sacristy added after the old one had been destroyed by Bartolomeo Colleoni to erect his personal mausoleum, the Colleoni Chapel.

In 1521, Pietro Isabello finished the south-western portal, also known as Porta della Fontana. The edifice was restored and modified in the 17th century.

Architecture

The church opens on the square (Piazza Duomo) on its own left side, as the main façade has no entrance, being once united to the Bishops' Palace. The external appearance has largely maintained its Lombard Romanesque origins. The church can be accessed by two entrances by Giovanni da Campione (1353) and by Isabello's Porta della Fontana.

The main apse is crowned by a loggia surmounted by two frieze with geometrical and vegetables patterns, and has blind arcades with semi-columns. The latter's capitals have also vegetable themes, with the exception of one, decorated by Angels with Last Judgement's Trumpets. The transept's apses have a structure similar to the main one.

Notable is Giovanni da Campione's porch in the left transept, which is supported by columns departing from lions in Veronese marble. the arch has a frieze with hunting scenes, while the vault is decorated by polychrome lozenges. A loggia houses statues of St Barbara, St Vincent and St Alexander. At the peak is a Gothic niche by Hans von Fernach (1403), with the Madonna with Child flanked by St Esther and St Grata (1398). also by Giovanni da Campione is the porch of the right transept, with a similar though simpler structure. The columns are supported by lions in white marble. It has reliefs with Christ Crowned by Saints and Birth of the Baptist.

Isabello's Renaissance porch has, in the lunette, a fresco of Mary's Nativity attributed to Andrea Previtali.

Interior

The interior has maintained the original Romanesque Greek cross plan, with a nave and two aisles divided by piers and ending with an apse, but the decoration its largely from the 17th century Baroque renovation.

On the walls are tapestries, partly executed in Florence (1583–1586) under Alessandro Allori's design, partly of Flemish manufacture, depicting the Life of Mary. Over the tapestry of the Crucifixion (executed in Antwerp on Ludwig van Schoor's cartoons, 1698) is a painting by Luca Giordano, with the Passage of the Red Sea (1691).

Left to the entrance is the sepulchre of Cardinal Guglielmo Longhi, work by Ugo da Campione (1913–1320). On the rear wall are the tomb of the composer Gaetano Donizetti, by Vincenzo Vela (1855) and that of the latter's master Simone Mayr (1852). At the beginning of the left aisle is the Baroque confessional carved by Andrea Fantoni in 1704. A crucifix from the 14th century is on the presbytery's balaustrade.

In the presbytery itself, housing six bronze candelabra from 1597, is a wooden choir designed by Bernardo Zenale and Andrea Previtali. The reliefs with Biblical tales were executed in 1524–1555 on designs by Lorenzo Lotto. They are characterized by a polychrome effect rendered through the use of different wood types.

The right transepts has Giottesque frescoes from an unknown artist, with Histories of St AegidiusThe Last Supper and the Tree of Life (1347), partially covered by a 17th-century fresco.

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Details

Founded: 1137
Category: Religious sites in Italy

More Information

en.wikipedia.org

Rating

4.8/5 (based on Google user reviews)

User Reviews

Richard T.Whybrow (2 years ago)
Probably the best church you will visit in Northern Italy. Free to enter, but donations are accepted. A short bus ride from the Bergamo station and it’s recommended to catch the funicular for €1.5; well worth the trip. When you arrive at the top you’ll be greeted with lots of shops to peruse. The piazza at the top is home to this beautifully decorated, magnificent, church. For a great view of the surroundings (and a birds eye view of the Basilica) climb the bell tower in the “Museo Nuove Storie” (there is a €5 charge but there is a lift) just on the right as you approach the Basilica.
C G Ellison (2 years ago)
What a beautiful building, so much to look at and take in. If you arei n the area it's a must see place. Not sure I have ever seen anything quite as ornate and beautiful, certainly not in the UK that's for sure. Plan the time to visit, you will be amazed.
Giovanni Negri (2 years ago)
the exterior preserves the original Romanesque-Lombard architectural lines, while the interior is decorated in Baroque style (from 1500 to 1700). It was originally the baptismal church of the Cathedral of San Vincenzo, built next to the complex
Lucia (2 years ago)
Amazing cathedral with a rich interior what is full of frescoes, tapestry, beautiful old icons, modelings and carved wooden furniture. It is the most beautiful church where u have ever been! Also you can listen a history of that place
Hannisze Yong (2 years ago)
I have seen many beautiful churches, cathedrals and monasteries all around the world, but gosh, this one beats them all! It was so stunning and awesome, literally took my breath away. I guess I will just let my photos do the talking because now words can describe the beauty I saw in this place!!
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Early modern times through Thirty Years' War

In 1485, in the Partition of Leipzig, Veste Coburg fell to the Ernestine branch of the family. A year later, Elector Friedrich der Weise and Johann der Beständige took over the rule of Coburg. Johann used the Veste as a residence from 1499. In 1506/07, Lucas Cranach the Elder lived and worked in the Veste. From April to October 1530, during the Diet of Augsburg, Martin Luther sought protection at the Veste, as he was under an Imperial ban at the time. Whilst he stayed at the fortress, Luther continued with his work translating the Bible into German. In 1547, Johann Ernst moved the residence of the ducal family to a more convenient and fashionable location, Ehrenburg Palace in the town centre of Coburg. The Veste now only served as a fortification.

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17th through 19th centuries

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20th century

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Today

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