Milan Cathedral

Milan, Italy

Milan Cathedral (Duomo di Milano) is the third largest church in the world and it took nearly six centuries to complete.


Saint Ambrose built a new basilica on this site at the beginning of the 5th century, with an adjoining basilica added in 836. When fire damaged both buildings in 1075, they were rebuilt as the Duomo.

In 1386, Archbishop Antonio da Saluzzo began construction of the cathedral. In 1389, a French chief engineer, Nicolas de Bonaventure, was appointed, adding to the church its Rayonnant Gothic, a French style not typical for Italy. He decided that the brick structure should be panelled with marble. Work proceeded quickly and in 1402 almost half the cathedral was complete. Construction, however, stalled almost totally until 1480, for lack of money and ideas.

In 1500 to 1510, under Ludovico Sforza, the octagonal cupola was completed, and decorated in the interior with four series of 15 statues each, portraying saints, prophets, sibyls and other Figures from the Bible. The exterior long remained without any decoration, except for the Guglietto dell'Amadeo ('Amadeo's Little Spire'), constructed 1507-1510. This is a Renaissance masterwork which nevertheless harmonized well with the general Gothic appearance of the church.

After the accession of Carlo Borromeo to the archbishop's throne, all lay monuments were removed from the Duomo. In 1575-1585 the presbytery was rebuilt, while new altars and the baptistry were added. The wooden choir stalls were constructed by 1614 for the main altar by Francesco Brambilla. In 1577 Borromeo finally consecrated the whole edifice as a new church.

At the beginning of the 17th century Federico Borromeo had the foundations of the new façade laid by Francesco Maria Richini and Fabio Mangone. Work continued until 1638 with the construction of five portals and two middle windows. In 1649, however, the new chief architect Carlo Buzzi introduced a striking revolution: the façade was to revert to original Gothic style, including the already finished details within big Gothic pilasters and two giant belfries. In 1762 one of the main features of the cathedral, the Madonnina's spire, was erected at the dizzying height of 108.5 m.

In 1805, Napoleon Bonaparte, about to be crowned King of Italy, ordered the façade to be finished by Pellicani. Within only seven years, the Cathedral's façade was completed. In the following years, most of the missing arches and spires were constructed. The statues on the southern wall were also finished, while in 1829-1858, new stained glass windows replaced the old ones, though with less aesthetically significant results. The last details of the cathedral were finished only in the 20th century: the last gate was inaugurated on January 6, 1965.

Architecture and art

The plan consists of a nave with four side-aisles, crossed by a transept and then followed by choir and apse. The roof is open to tourists (for a fee), which allows many a close-up view of some spectacular sculpture that would otherwise be unappreciated. The roof of the cathedral is renowned for the forest of openwork pinnacles and spires, set upon delicate flying buttresses.

The interior of the cathedral includes numerous monuments and artworks. At the left of the altar is located the most famous statue of all the Cathedral, the Saint Bartholomew Flayed (1562), by Marco d'Agrate, the saint shows his flayed skin thrown over his shoulders like a stole. There are also several sarcophagus of bishops and three magnificent altars by Pellegrino Pellegrini, which include the notable Federico Zuccari's Visit of St. Peter to St. Agatha jailed.



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Piazza del Duomo, Milan, Italy
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Founded: 1386
Category: Religious sites in Italy


4.8/5 (based on Google user reviews)

User Reviews

Paul Pilone (5 months ago)
My favorite cathedral of all time!! Blows Saint Peter away if you ask me. The artwork is flawless and superior to all other cathedrals I've been to and that's a lot. Absolutely spellbound by its magnificence! Truly a Christ Jesus.inspired work of art.
Navneet Sidhu (6 months ago)
Wonderful place to visit, very live and busy. Great art work. Huge lineups though to go inside the cathedral. Area around cathedral is also very nice. Really enjoyed tons of pigeons in front of the cathedral. Lots of shopping stores, big brands. Restaurants there are very good. Loved there food. Outdoor patios are awesome. Very good environment, very positive. Art work is great for indoor shopping malls. Very different. Lots of walking to explore near by areas so wear comfortable footwear and you are good to go.
Ştefan-Vlad Ionescu (10 months ago)
Surreal. My holiday HQ was Rome but I did a one day turnaround to Milan and it was simply gorgeous. Fashion, style, refinement and grace are above those found in the capital city. On top of it all (no pun intended) sit the terraces of the Duomo Di Milano. Stunning. I'm difficult to impress but I could almost be hard pressed to say that the sight of the Duomo Terraces might be the most majestic/epic thing I laid eyes upon - second to my girlfriend, obviously!
Priya Indian Vlogger in Germany (10 months ago)
This is the most beautiful artistic monumental church in the center of Milan with probably the best artwork and sculptures that I have seen. The place is full of so much artistic grandeur and splendid monuments that it shows a glimpse of the architecture and skills of the Italian culture. The location is superb as you can reach here easily via public transport such as metro, tram and buses. It is just next to the famous high line shopping district and has some very good Italian restaurants nearby. You can always find a lot of events and promotions near this place. There are sometimes musical fest and public events or demonstrations also here. It is a must visit for sure when you are in Milan.
Leipzig Englisch (11 months ago)
If you are in or near Milan, then please take some time to go and visit this magnificent cathedral right in the city centre of Milan. Take the time to walk around outside and look at the thousands of intricate carvings and statues and see just how much detail there is in each and everyone of them and there are a lot of them. Inside is just as majestic with its large ceilings and huge stained glass windows. But remember, if you want to go inside, prepare to queue and please come dressed appropriately as they will turn you away if not. You may think, I've seen one Cathedral, I've seen them all. But this is something really special.
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Abbey of Saint-Étienne

The Abbey of Saint-Etienne, also known as Abbaye aux Hommes ('Men"s Abbey'), is a former monastery dedicated to Saint Stephen (Saint Étienne). It is considered, along with the neighbouring Abbaye aux Dames ('Ladies" Abbey'), to be one of the most notable Romanesque buildings in Normandy. Like all the major abbeys in Normandy, it was Benedictine.

Lanfranc, before being an Archbishop of Canterbury, was abbot of Saint-Etienne. Built in Caen stone during the 11th century, the two semi-completed churches stood for many decades in competition. An important feature added to both churches in about 1120 was the ribbed vault, used for the first time in France. The two abbey churches are considered forerunners of the Gothic architecture. The original Romanesque apse was replaced in 1166 by an early Gothic chevet, complete with rosette windows and flying buttresses. Nine towers and spires were added in the 13th century. The interior vaulting shows a similar progression, beginning with early sexpartite vaulting (using circular ribs) in the nave and progressing to quadipartite vaults (using pointed ribs) in the sanctuary.

The two monasteries were finally donated by William the Conqueror and his wife, Matilda of Flanders, as penalty for their marriage against the Pope"s ruling. William was buried here; Matilda was buried in the Abbaye aux Dames. Unfortunately William"s original tombstone of black marble, the same kind as Matilda"s in the Abbaye aux Dames, was destroyed by the Calvinist iconoclasts in the 16th century and his bones scattered.

As a consequence of the Wars of Religion, the high lantern tower in the middle of the church collapsed and was never rebuilt. The Benedictine abbey was suppressed during the French Revolution and the abbey church became a parish church. From 1804 to 1961, the abbey buildings accommodated a prestigious high school, the Lycée Malherbe. During the Normandy Landings in 1944, inhabitants of Caen found refuge in the church; on the rooftop there was a red cross, made with blood on a sheet, to show that it was a hospital (to avoid bombings).