Devenish Island contains one of the finest monastic sites in Northern Ireland. A round tower thought to date from the twelfth century is situated on the island, as are the walls of the Oratory of Saint Molaise who established the monastery in the 6th century, on a pilgrim route to Croagh Patrick in County Mayo. It became a centre of scholarship and although raided by Vikings in 837 and burned in 1157, it later flourished as the site of the parish church and St Mary's Augustinian Priory.
There are extensive low earthworks on the hillside, but the earliest buildings are St Molaise's House (a very small church) and the fine round tower close by, both with accomplished Romanesque decoration of the 12th century. The round tower is some 30 metres tall and can be climbed using internal ladders. It features a sculptured Romanesque cornice of heads and ornament under the conical stone roof. Nearby is a cross carved with spiral patterns and human heads. There are also several cross-slabs, one with an interlace design and a mediaeval carved cross. Near the round tower, the foundations of another tower were found, which the present tower probably superseded.
The smallest of the three churches (Mo-Laisse's House, named after the founder of the monastery) dates from the late 12th or early 13th century. It has narrow antae with bases carved with classical motifs. Only the lower parts of the walls and some of the roofstones survive.
Teampull Mór, the lower church, dates from the early 13th century with a beautifully moulded south window. It was extended to the east in about 1300, and later additions include a residential wing to the north and the Maguire Chapel to the south, with 17th-century heraldic slabs.
On the hilltop sits St Mary's Augustinian Priory which is of the mid-15th century and early 16th century, with church, tower and small north cloister. The priory has an intricately carved mid-15th-century high cross in its graveyard. The Devenish cross dates from the 15th century and is gothic in style. It is thought to have been carved by Matthew O’Dubegan, who also carved the sacristy doorway. The cross has decorative carvings and motifs, including a depiction of the crucifixtion on the upper part of the shaft.
There are several hundred loose architectural fragments on the site and among them are over 40 stones from an otherwise lost, richly-decorated Romanesque church. Some of the many loose stones are displayed and set in their historical context in the small visitor centre.References:
Derbent is the southernmost city in Russia, occupying the narrow gateway between the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus Mountains connecting the Eurasian steppes to the north and the Iranian Plateau to the south. Derbent claims to be the oldest city in Russia with historical documentation dating to the 8th century BCE. Due to its strategic location, over the course of history, the city changed ownership many times, particularly among the Persian, Arab, Mongol, Timurid, Shirvan and Iranian kingdoms.
Derbent has archaeological structures over 5,000 years old. As a result of this geographic peculiarity, the city developed between two walls, stretching from the mountains to the sea. These fortifications were continuously employed for a millennium and a half, longer than any other extant fortress in the world.
A traditionally and historically Iranian city, the first intensive settlement in the Derbent area dates from the 8th century BC. The site was intermittently controlled by the Persian monarchs, starting from the 6th century BC. Until the 4th century AD, it was part of Caucasian Albania which was a satrap of the Achaemenid Persian Empire. In the 5th century Derbent functioned as a border fortress and the seat of Sassanid Persians. Because of its strategic position on the northern branch of the Silk Route, the fortress was contested by the Khazars in the course of the Khazar-Arab Wars. In 654, Derbent was captured by the Arabs.
The Sassanid fortress does not exist any more, as the famous Derbent fortress as it stands today was built from the 12th century onward. Derbent became a strong military outpost and harbour of the Sassanid empire. During the 5th and 6th centuries, Derbent also became an important center for spreading the Christian faith in the Caucasus.
The site continued to be of great strategic importance until the 19th century. Today the fortifications consist of two parallel defence walls and Naryn-Kala Citadel. The walls are 3.6km long, stretching from the sea up to the mountains. They were built from stone and had 73 defence towers. 9 out of the 14 original gates remain.
In Naryn-Kala Citadel most of the old buildings, including a palace and a church, are now in ruins. It also holds baths and one of the oldest mosques in the former USSR.
In 2003, UNESCO included the old part of Derbent with traditional buildings in the World Heritage List.