Bayonne has been inhabited since roman times, when it was known as Lapurdum. Its medieval fortifications were improved by Louis XII, and Francois I, enabling the town to defend itself against a Spanish army in 1523.
Vauban visited Bayonne sometime in the 1670's, and planned more improvements to the fortifications, including the construction of additional demi-lunes and a large, quadrangular citadel to the north of the river Adour. The city itself, which lies to the south of the Adour and is bisected by the river Nive, was surrounded by a wall of 9 rather eccentric bastions.
The citadel was designed from scratch by Vauban, and is a large square work with four bastions. It saw action against the invading British forces at the end of the Peninsular War, when it was taken by General Hill after a determined defence by the French.
The fortifications of Petit Bayonne, the eastern half of the town, had four bastions and one gate, the Porte de Notre Dame. To the west, Grand Bayonne had five bastions and two gates, the Porte d'Espagne and the Porte de la Poterne. The first gate is unusual in that it enters the walls through a bastion, not through the courtine as is normally the case.
The size and shape of each bastion is very different, and there are varying lengths between them, which makes the fortifications seem less regular than some. This is probably due to the way Bayonne was fortified in several stages, with improvements added gradually.References:
Tyniec Benedictine abbey was founded by King Casimir the Restorer probably around 1044. Casimir decided to rebuild the newly established Kingdom of Poland, after a Pagan rebellion and a disastrous Czech raid of Duke Bretislaus I (1039). The Benedictines, invited to Tyniec by the King, were tasked with restoring order as well as cementing the position of the State and the Church. First Tyniec Abbot was Aaron, who became the Bishop of Kraków. Since there is no conclusive evidence to support the foundation date as 1040, some historians claim that the abbey was founded by Casimir the Restorer’ son, King Boleslaw II the Generous.
In the second half of the 11th century, a complex of Romanesque buildings was completed, consisting of a basilica and the abbey. In the 14th century, it was destroyed in Tatar and Czech raids, and in the 15th century it was rebuilt in Gothic style. Further remodelings took place in the 17th and 18th centuries, first in Baroque, then in Rococo style. The abbey was partly destroyed in the Swedish invasion of Poland, and soon afterwards was rebuilt, with a new library. Further destruction took place during the Bar Confederation, when Polish rebels turned the abbey into their fortress.
In 1816, Austrian authorities liquidated the abbey, and in 1821-1826, it was the seat of the Bishop of Tyniec, Grzegorz Tomasz Ziegler. The monks, however, did not return to the abbey until 1939, and in 1947, remodelling of the neglected complex was initiated. In 1968, the Church of St. Peter and Paul was once again named the seat of the abbot. The church itself consists of a Gothic presbytery and a Baroque main nave. Several altars were created by an 18th-century Italian sculptor Francesco Placidi. The church also has a late Baroque pulpit by Franciszek Jozef Mangoldt.