The castle of Magaña is considered to be one of the most important castles from the 15th century in the province of Soria. This castle is in better condition than what we are used to seeing in the area and the best way to contemplate its majestic silhouette is from the road on the way towards Fuentes de Magaña or from the highest parts of the town. You will be able to see all the plants that have reclaimed its walls contrasting with the ochre tones of the landscape where the tall keep sticks out from its hiding place in the middle of the castle’s courtyard.
It is located on a steep hill near the town and it dominates the valley of the Alhama River over which a medieval bridge crosses. On the hillside, there is a chapel with a rectangular apse which some authors believe to be pre-Romanesque.
The castle is built of stone and is organised into two walled enclosures around the 9th or 11th-century Berber keep, much older than the rest of the ensemble and belonging to a group of Berber towers that were erected all throughout the valley of the Rituerto River, such as the Masegoso, Trévago, Noviercas, Castellanos, La Pica or Aldealpozo towers. This tower still maintains the original battlement hexes and some windows framed with ashlar stonework.
The inner enclosure has very tall walls and has a quadrangular floor plan with the keep at one of its corners and cube-shaped structures on the other two. The outer one is much lower and its floor plan is quite irregular with seven cube-shaped structures scattered throughout the hill’s perimeter.References:
The Externsteine (Extern stones) is a distinctive sandstone rock formation located in the Teutoburg Forest, near the town of Horn-Bad Meinberg. The formation is a tor consisting of several tall, narrow columns of rock which rise abruptly from the surrounding wooded hills. Archaeological excavations have yielded some Upper Paleolithic stone tools dating to about 10,700 BC from 9,600 BC.
In a popular tradition going back to an idea proposed to Hermann Hamelmann in 1564, the Externsteine are identified as a sacred site of the pagan Saxons, and the location of the Irminsul (sacral pillar-like object in German paganism) idol reportedly destroyed by Charlemagne; there is however no archaeological evidence that would confirm the site's use during the relevant period.
The stones were used as the site of a hermitage in the Middle Ages, and by at least the high medieval period were the site of a Christian chapel. The Externsteine relief is a medieval depiction of the Descent from the Cross. It remains controversial whether the site was already used for Christian worship in the 8th to early 10th centuries.
The Externsteine gained prominence when Völkisch and nationalistic scholars took an interest in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. This interest peaked under the Nazi regime, when the Externsteine became a focus of nazi propaganda. Today, they remain a popular tourist destination and also continue to attract Neo-Pagans and Neo-Nazis.