The first written mention of Íscar was in the year 939 AD in Muslim chronicles. The remaining Christians reconquered Iscar in 1086 AD. Build on the ruins of its ancient fortress, Iscar’s Castle stands majestic looking over the village. The oldest preserved parts of this fortress (probably dating back to the 13th century) are remains of the curtain wall and the inside structure of the tower. To provide a defence against possible attacks from the west side, weak point, the enclosure was re-enforced in the second halfof the fifteenth century for defensive purposes.
At the back of the Main Tower, a large defensive spur, flanked by two turrets transformed the ground floor into the shape of a pentagon.In this side also a new body was added as a defensive barbican, with a small artillery barrier with three circular barrel turrets. And for safety a Moat was dug into the limestone rocks whose access was by a drawbridge.
On one of these turrets appears the shield of Pedro de Zúñiga y Avellaneda and his wife Catalina de Velasco y Mendoza, IICounts of the Miranda del Castañar, which dates this work at between 1478 and 1493.References:
The city walls of Avila were built in the 11th century to protect the citizens from the Moors. They have been well maintained throughout the centuries and are now a major tourist attraction as well as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Visitors can walk around about half of the length of the walls.
The layout of the city is an even quadrilateral with a perimeter of 2,516 m. Its walls, which consist in part of stones already used in earlier constructions, have an average thickness of 3 m. Access to the city is afforded by nine gates of different periods; twin 20 m high towers, linked by a semi-circular arch, flank the oldest ones, Puerta de San Vicente and Puerta del Alcázar.