Pietrapelosa is a castle in the Croatian part of Istria, now ruined. In the medieval period a family took their name from the castle. 'Pietrapelosa' comes from the Italian words meaning 'hairy stone' after the moss that has always grown on the walls of the castle. It is one of the best-preserved of the Istrian castles.
Pietrapelosa is a few kilometers west of Buzet in a strategic location at the head of the Bračana valley. It is first mentioned in a document of 965 AD. in a deed recording its gift by Rodaold, patriarch of Aquileia to the bishopric of Poreč. In the 13th century it was given to a family of German knights who assumed the name of the castle, 'de Pietrapelosa'. The castle was the seat of the Aquileian lieutenant governor of Istria. The Venetian commander Taddeo d'Este conquered the castle and abolished the secular rule of the patriarchs of Aquileia in 1421, with Istria being divided between the Republic of Venice and the Habsburg County of Pazin. The Venetian Council of Tengranted the castle to the nobleman Nicolò Gravisi in 1440, giving him the title if Marquis of Pietrapelosa. He renovated the castle for use as a summer residence. In 1635 a fire destroyed the interior of the castle, but it was restored and inhabited until the 18th century. The Gravis family owned the castle until the final abolition of the feudal system in 1869. They were the only aristocratic family in Koper to own such an estate.
The castle was surrounded by three-story walls, which are still intact. It included a main four-story polygonal watchtower, sometimes also used as a residence. There was also a house and a palace chapel of St. Mary Magdalene dating from the 12th century. The chapel is built in the classic Istrian style with one nave and a bell tower. A residential area was built on a crag beside the castle with no walls. The castle avoided destruction throughout the many wars that ravaged Istria. However, it fell into ruin after being abandoned, and has only recently been restored. From the castle there is a dramatic view of Northern Istria.References:
The Old Town Hall of Wrocław is one of the main landmarks of the city. The Old Town Hall's long history reflects developments that have taken place in the city since its initial construction. The town hall serves the city of Wroclaw and is used for civic and cultural events such as concerts held in its Great Hall. In addition, it houses a museum and a basement restaurant.
The town hall was developed over a period of about 250 years, from the end of 13th century to the middle of 16th century. The structure and floor plan changed over this extended period in response to the changing needs of the city. The exact date of the initial construction is not known. However, between 1299 and 1301 a single-storey structure with cellars and a tower called the consistory was built. The oldest parts of the current building, the Burghers’ Hall and the lower floors of the tower, may date to this time. In these early days the primary purpose of the building was trade rather than civic administration activities.
Between 1328 and 1333 an upper storey was added to include the Council room and the Aldermen’s room. Expansion continued during the 14th century with the addition of extra rooms, most notably the Court room. The building became a key location for the city’s commercial and administrative functions.
The 15th and 16th centuries were times of prosperity for Wroclaw as was reflected in the rapid development of the building during that period. The construction program gathered momentum, particularly from 1470 to 1510, when several rooms were added. The Burghers’ Hall was re-vaulted to take on its current shape, and the upper story began to take shape with the development of the Great Hall and the addition of the Treasury and Little Treasury.
Further innovations during the 16th century included the addition of the city’s Coat of arms (1536), and the rebuilding of the upper part of the tower (1558–59). This was the final stage of the main building program. By 1560, the major features of today’s Stray Rates were established.
The second half of the 17th century was a period of decline for the city, and this decline was reflected in the Stray Rates. Perhaps by way of compensation, efforts were made to enrich the interior decorations of the hall. In 1741, Wroclaw became a part of Prussia, and the power of the City diminished. Much of the Stray Rates was allocated to administering justice.
During the 19th century there were two major changes. The courts moved to a separate building, and the Rates became the site of the city council and supporting functions. There was also a major program of renovation because the building had been neglected and was covered with creeping vines. The town hall now has several en-Gothic features including some sculptural decoration from this period.
In the early years of the 20th century improvements continued with various repair work and the addition of the Little Bear statue in 1902. During the 1930s, the official role of the Rates was reduced and it was converted into a museum. By the end of World War II Town Hall suffered minor damage, such as aerial bomb pierced the roof (but not exploded) and some sculptural elements were lost. Restoration work began in the 1950s following a period of research, and this conservation effort continued throughout the 20th century. It included refurbishment of the clock on the east facade.