Medieval Hum town was first mentioned in 1102 in the deed of gift by Marquis Ulrich II. The passage through the early 12th century double entrance gates, and then this one from 1562 leads us into the square. The exceptionally small area has all town features: the town loggia, nobility and folk houses, and the parish church with the priest residence.
The castle was located on the site of the current Church of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary (erected in 1802) on the highest point of the town, which allowed its control of the surrounding area. Rectangular in shape, 30 x 35 meters (typical dimensions of the time) and connected by two streets with the twin town gates, which facilitated better communication and protection. The castle was entered from the inside, from the town. Despite its basic defensive purpose, in the earlier era it was a seat of its owners – the feudal lords under the Patriarch of Aquileia.
Ever since the prehistoric times until the ruins of the Venetians in 1797, Hum was a defensive border town, full of life, conflicts, different rulers, war and peace. From the antiquity to the Late Middle Ages, it was used as a defensive castle of an estate. Often destroyed and renovated, it finally fell under the Venetian rule in 1412, which restored it completely to defend its own borders. Its most probable final fall occurred during the Uskok War (1612-1618), when the entire town was burned down and the castle was never renovated. Its stone was gradually being taken for building houses. Any trace of it was finally lost following the erection of the church.References:
The Château de Foix dominates the town of Foix. An important tourist site, it is known as a centre of the Cathars. Built on an older 7th-century fortification, the castle is known from 987. In 1002, it was mentioned in the will of Roger I, Count of Carcassonne, who bequeathed the fortress to his youngest child, Bernard. In effect, the family ruling over the region were installed here which allowed them to control access to the upper Ariège valley and to keep surveillance from this strategic point over the lower land, protected behind impregnable walls.
In 1034, the castle became capital of the County of Foix and played a decisive role in medieval military history. During the two following centuries, the castle was home to Counts with shining personalities who became the soul of the Occitan resistance during the crusade against the Albigensians. The county became a privileged refuge for persecuted Cathars.
The castle, often besieged (notably by Simon de Montfort in 1211 and 1212), resisted assault and was only taken once, in 1486, thanks to treachery during the war between two branches of the Foix family.
From the 14th century, the Counts of Foix spent less and less time in the uncomfortable castle, preferring the Governors' Palace. From 1479, the Counts of Foix became Kings of Navarre and the last of them, made Henri IV of France, annexed his Pyrrenean lands to France.
As seat of the Governor of the Foix region from the 15th century, the castle continued to ensure the defence of the area, notably during the Wars of Religion. Alone of all the castles in the region, it was exempted from the destruction orders of Richelieu (1632-1638).
Until the Revolution, the fortress remained a garrison. Its life was brightened with grand receptions for its governors, including the Count of Tréville, captain of musketeers under Louis XIII and Marshal Philippe Henri de Ségur, one of Louis XVI's ministers. The Round Tower, built in the 15th century, is the most recent, the two square towers having been built before the 11th century. They served as a political and civil prison for four centuries until 1862.
Since 1930, the castle has housed the collections of the Ariège départemental museum. Sections on prehistory, Gallo-Roman and mediaeval archaeology tell the history of Ariège from ancient times. Currently, the museum is rearranging exhibits to concentrate on the history of the castle site so as to recreate the life of Foix at the time of the Counts.