Medieval Hum town was first mentioned in 1102 in the deed of gift by Marquis Ulrich II. The passage through the early 12th century double entrance gates, and then this one from 1562 leads us into the square. The exceptionally small area has all town features: the town loggia, nobility and folk houses, and the parish church with the priest residence.
The castle was located on the site of the current Church of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary (erected in 1802) on the highest point of the town, which allowed its control of the surrounding area. Rectangular in shape, 30 x 35 meters (typical dimensions of the time) and connected by two streets with the twin town gates, which facilitated better communication and protection. The castle was entered from the inside, from the town. Despite its basic defensive purpose, in the earlier era it was a seat of its owners – the feudal lords under the Patriarch of Aquileia.
Ever since the prehistoric times until the ruins of the Venetians in 1797, Hum was a defensive border town, full of life, conflicts, different rulers, war and peace. From the antiquity to the Late Middle Ages, it was used as a defensive castle of an estate. Often destroyed and renovated, it finally fell under the Venetian rule in 1412, which restored it completely to defend its own borders. Its most probable final fall occurred during the Uskok War (1612-1618), when the entire town was burned down and the castle was never renovated. Its stone was gradually being taken for building houses. Any trace of it was finally lost following the erection of the church.References:
The Externsteine (Extern stones) is a distinctive sandstone rock formation located in the Teutoburg Forest, near the town of Horn-Bad Meinberg. The formation is a tor consisting of several tall, narrow columns of rock which rise abruptly from the surrounding wooded hills. Archaeological excavations have yielded some Upper Paleolithic stone tools dating to about 10,700 BC from 9,600 BC.
In a popular tradition going back to an idea proposed to Hermann Hamelmann in 1564, the Externsteine are identified as a sacred site of the pagan Saxons, and the location of the Irminsul (sacral pillar-like object in German paganism) idol reportedly destroyed by Charlemagne; there is however no archaeological evidence that would confirm the site's use during the relevant period.
The stones were used as the site of a hermitage in the Middle Ages, and by at least the high medieval period were the site of a Christian chapel. The Externsteine relief is a medieval depiction of the Descent from the Cross. It remains controversial whether the site was already used for Christian worship in the 8th to early 10th centuries.
The Externsteine gained prominence when Völkisch and nationalistic scholars took an interest in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. This interest peaked under the Nazi regime, when the Externsteine became a focus of nazi propaganda. Today, they remain a popular tourist destination and also continue to attract Neo-Pagans and Neo-Nazis.