Torre Fiorenzana is a tower house built in the late 12th century for the local de Grono family. The first mention of the family is 1219. They appear again in local records in 1286 and 1288. The Canon Bernardinus of Grono and the Provost Heinrich appear to have been the last male members of the family. By 1314 it was owned by the powerful Lords of Sax-Misox and a branch of the family inhabited it. In the 14th century they were signing documents as de Saco de Grono and in the 15th century were de Saco de Fiorenzana. According to tradition, in 1406 the powerful leader of the family, Albert von Sax, was murdered at Fiorenzana.
In the 16th century the tower was locally owned. The coat of arms of the Three Leagues was painted on it at that time. Over the following centuries, it was inhabited by a number of local families and today remains privately owned. The exterior was studied and repaired in 1978.
The castle is located in the center of Grono village. It is a five-story, rectangular tower. The crow-stepped gables along the roof were added by the Lords of Sax-Misox in the 14th century. The original high entrance was located on the third floor and is still visible.References:
Narikala is an ancient fortress overlooking Tbilisi, the capital of Georgia, and the Kura River. The fortress consists of two walled sections on a steep hill between the sulphur baths and the botanical gardens of Tbilisi. On the lower court there is the recently restored St Nicholas church. Newly built in 1996–1997, it replaces the original 13th-century church that was destroyed in a fire. The new church is of 'prescribed cross' type, having doors on three sides. The internal part of the church is decorated with the frescos showing scenes both from the Bible and history of Georgia.
The fortress was established in the 4th century and it was a Persian citadel. It was considerably expanded by the Umayyads in the 7th century and later, by king David the Builder (1089–1125). Most of extant fortifications date from the 16th and 17th centuries. In 1827, parts of the fortress were damaged by an earthquake and demolished.