Velez-Malaga’s Alcazaba, or ‘Fortaleza’ as it’s more commonly known, was built in the 10th century. Originally, it was intended not to defend but to subdue the local population, who had traditionally caused a lot of problems for the Moorish rulers. Built on the tallest hill in the immediate area, it was the perfect site from a military point of view, affording long distance views of oncoming enemies and an easily defendable geographical location.
Over the next 500 years, Velez’s fort remained largely the same. At the beginning of the 14th century, the Nasrid kingdom of Granada grew in prominence and solidified Moorish control over the Iberian Peninsula.
The function of the Fortaleza changed dramatically at this time as it became one of the most important strongholds in the Nasrid Kingdom. The outer walls of the Alcazaba sheltered and protected the local population and the buildings inside the inner walls provided a great level of fortification in the event of attacks on the area.
Christian King Fernando eventually conquered the fort of Velez-Malaga in 1487. Muslims and Jews were expelled from the area and fled to Northern Africa, or were forced to convert to Catholicism.
During the 16th century the competition between European nations was reflected in a shift in function for the Velez fort. Dutch, British, Spanish and Moorish pirates and privateers on the Mediterranean took advantage of the now poorly defended villages and settlements to raid for slaves.
Velez became one of a system of forts along the coast. From its position on the highest point of the area, the fort would provide advanced warning to residents of approaching raiders or oncoming enemy armies and then shelter residents until the danger had passed.
At the end of the 19th century, the need for forts had diminished so drastically that the hilltop on which the Fortaleza sits was assigned for use as a quarry. The buildings fell into disrepair and were closed to the public.
The main keep and south-facing castle wall are the only parts of the original site that have been fully restored. You can also see remains of many buildings around the site. All of these buildings are from the last time that improvements were made to the Alcazaba, with the 18th-century occupants installing the latest in military equipment at the time.
Remains of a fortified stable building can be seen around the courtyard within the inner castle walls. The courtyard was built in line with best military practices of the time and was used to store weapons for local troops. The semicircular wall to the south, facing the sea, originally housed six battery guns that would have been a first defense against attackers coming from the ocean. Around all of the inner castle walls there was originally a moat, although traces of this are hard to find.References:
The Castle of Gruyères is one of the most famous in Switzerland. It was built between 1270 and 1282, following the typical square plan of the fortifications in Savoy. It was the property of the Counts of Gruyères until the bankruptcy of the Count Michel in 1554. His creditors the cantons of Fribourg and Bern shared his earldom. From 1555 to 1798 the castle became residence to the bailiffs and then to the prefects sent by Fribourg.
In 1849 the castle was sold to the Bovy and Balland families, who used the castle as their summer residency and restored it. The castle was then bought back by the canton of Fribourg in 1938, made into a museum and opened to the public. Since 1993, a foundation ensures the conservation as well as the highlighting of the building and the art collection.
The castle is the home of three capes of the Order of the Golden Fleece. They were part of the war booty captured by the Swiss Confederates (which included troops from Gruyères) at the Battle of Morat against Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy in 1476. As Charles the Bold was celebrating the anniversary of his father's death, one of the capes is a black velvet sacerdotal vestment with Philip the Good's emblem sewn into it.
A collection of landscapes by 19th century artists Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot, Barthélemy Menn and others are on display in the castle.