The Castle of Zahara de los Atunes and Palace of Jadraza is a medieval castle on Spain's coast. In 1294, King Sancho IV of Castile granted a licence to Don Alonso Pérez de Guzmán to build traps for tuna fishing in reward for his heroic defense of Tarifa. Guzman fisheries in Zahara de los Atunes and Conil de la Frontera were for centuries the most productive in Europe provoking the development of important auxiliary buildings.
The Palace served three functions: as a fortified castle to protect against Barbary pirates, a residential palace during the Tuna Season and a processing plant to deal with the tuna. Its location at a strategic point of the Strait of Gibraltar has been given prominence in numerous historical events, and it maintains a continued presence in coastal mapping. In the twentieth century the building was used by the fishing industry before becoming a barracks.
Building is a square structure defined by four defensive walls with parapet surmounted with a narrow walkway. In the north-west corner is the so-called Torre de Poniente which has an inner chamber beneath a high domed roof also with a parapet. In the north-east are the remains of de la Torre de Levante. Both towers were designed as corbelled spaces to overlook the defensive curtain walls.
The main gateway is located in the west wall, the two sea gates are in the south, which originally also provided access to large patio inner enclosure of the building. In the twentieth century 'New Gate' was added in the north wall, where there are also various other piercings introduced for practical reasons as the use of the building developed over time.
The factory is made of regular masonry blocks with lime grout and pebbles. The corners boast reinforced stonework. The three original stone doors were of generous proportions with arches and keystones . At the sea gates, two separate buttresses of considerable thickness are arranged inward to reinforce them in their defensive mission.References:
The Cloth Hall in Kraków dates to the Renaissance and is one of the city's most recognizable icons. It is the central feature of the main market square in the Kraków Old Town (listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1978).
The hall was once a major centre of international trade. Traveling merchants met there to discuss business and to barter. During its golden age in the 15th century, the hall was the source of a variety of exotic imports from the east – spices, silk, leather and wax – while Kraków itself exported textiles, lead, and salt from the Wieliczka Salt Mine.
Kraków was Poland's capital city and was among the largest cities in Europe already from before the time of the Renaissance. However, its decline started with the move of the capital to Warsaw in the very end of the 16th century. The city's decline was hastened by wars and politics leading to the Partitions of Poland at the end of the 18th century. By the time of the architectural restoration proposed for the cloth hall in 1870 under Austrian rule, much of the historic city center was decrepit. A change in political and economic fortunes for the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria ushered in a revival due to newly established Legislative Assembly or Sejm of the Land. The successful renovation of the Cloth Hall, based on design by Tomasz Pryliński and supervised by Mayor Mikołaj Zyblikiewicz, Sejm Marshal, was one of the most notable achievements of this period.
The hall has hosted many distinguished guests over the centuries and is still used to entertain monarchs and dignitaries, such as Charles, Prince of Wales and Emperor Akihito of Japan, who was welcomed here in 2002. In the past, balls were held here, most notably after Prince Józef Poniatowski had briefly liberated the city from the Austrians in 1809. Aside from its history and cultural value, the hall still is still used as a center of commerce.
On the upper floor of the hall is the Sukiennice Museum division of the National Museum, Kraków. It holds the largest permanent exhibit of the 19th-century Polish painting and sculpture, in four grand exhibition halls arranged by historical period and the theme extending into an entire artistic epoch. The museum was upgraded in 2010 with new technical equipment, storerooms, service spaces as well as improved thematic layout for the display.
The Gallery of 19th-Century Polish Art was a major cultural venue from the moment it opened on October 7, 1879. It features late Baroque, Rococo, and Classicist 18th-century portraits and battle scenes by Polish and foreign pre-Romantics.