Chiavari Castle was built after the convention of perpetual league signed on 1138 between Genoa and Fieschi. The construction started on 1140 and finished probably on 1147. It is one of the first castle erected in the Italian Riviera, over a hill dominating and defending a seafaring village, called Clavai, today Chiavari.
In 1172 the castle was besieged by Opizzone Malaspina, while in 1278 it fell into the hands of Moruello and Alberto Fieschi hands, allied for the conquest of the castle, but just for eight days.
During the first half of the 14th century it was rebuilt several times because of violent battles between the Guelfs and Ghibellines and in that century the village was further fortified by a heavy surrounding wall accessible through seven doors and defended by fourteen towers. Nowadays it is quite easy to see the ruins of the ancient wall of the ancient village of Chiavari.References:
Narikala is an ancient fortress overlooking Tbilisi, the capital of Georgia, and the Kura River. The fortress consists of two walled sections on a steep hill between the sulphur baths and the botanical gardens of Tbilisi. On the lower court there is the recently restored St Nicholas church. Newly built in 1996–1997, it replaces the original 13th-century church that was destroyed in a fire. The new church is of 'prescribed cross' type, having doors on three sides. The internal part of the church is decorated with the frescos showing scenes both from the Bible and history of Georgia.
The fortress was established in the 4th century and it was a Persian citadel. It was considerably expanded by the Umayyads in the 7th century and later, by king David the Builder (1089–1125). Most of extant fortifications date from the 16th and 17th centuries. In 1827, parts of the fortress were damaged by an earthquake and demolished.