Calice al Cornoviglio Castle is situated atop a hill overlooking the village. Founded in the 11th century, the first appearance in historical sources dates from 1206 when an act stated that the bishop of Luniwas to return the property of the castrum calisi (original name of the castle) to Guglielmoand Corrado Malaspina.
The castle had belonged to the Malaspina family from the 12th century on, but in the 13th century it was occupied by Gualtiero II, bishop of Luni; it was returned to its rightful owners in 1206. In the second half of the 13th century, the property of the castle was indirectly handed to the Fieschi family through the marriage between Agata Fieschi and Morello I, son of the ancestor of the Giovagallo family, already lords of Calice, Veppo and Madrignano. For political reasons, already in 1276 the Fieschis were forced to transfer many of their properties – including the castle of Calice – to the Republic of Genoa, which allowed themto stay as feudal lords.
The property of the castle was then alternatively handed from the Malaspinas to the Republic of Genoa for a certain period. In 1547, the Republic donated the fief to the Doria family and an imperial gift by Charles V confirmed their property ownership of the estate. Nevertheless, some bands connected to the Fieschi family tried an actual assault on the castle with the aim of abducting the marquise Placidia I Doria Spinola, lady of the estatein place of her husband. Anyway, the marquise and her children managed to avoid the assault by taking refuge, probably in the village of Veppo (Rocchetta di Vara), while the castle and the nearby abodes were set on fire.
Another marquise, Placidia Doria, married with amember of the Del Carretto family, who was also a descendant of the well-known admiral,would turn the structure into a residential building. In 1772, all the estates were handed to the Grand Duchy of Tuscany and the castle became the seat of the local podestà and of the Florentine garrison; later it was handed to the Duchy of Modena.
The castle has a solid trapezoidal structure, with a circular tower at one corner. The unusual plan of the building is the result of many renovations and transfers of ownership over the centuries.
The castle has four floors: the underground floor now hosts the Museo dell’Apicoltura (Museum of beekeeping) and the Statua stele di Borseda (Borseda statue menhir); the first floorhosts the art gallery David Beghè; the second floor is the seat of the Centro di educazione ambientale (Environmental education centre), of a small museum dedicated to Pietro Rosa, of conference halls and temporary exhibitions; the third floor or attic is still to be sorted out in order to use it. Today the castle looks more like a manor house than like a building with defensive functions.References:
The Cloth Hall in Kraków dates to the Renaissance and is one of the city's most recognizable icons. It is the central feature of the main market square in the Kraków Old Town (listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1978).
The hall was once a major centre of international trade. Traveling merchants met there to discuss business and to barter. During its golden age in the 15th century, the hall was the source of a variety of exotic imports from the east – spices, silk, leather and wax – while Kraków itself exported textiles, lead, and salt from the Wieliczka Salt Mine.
Kraków was Poland's capital city and was among the largest cities in Europe already from before the time of the Renaissance. However, its decline started with the move of the capital to Warsaw in the very end of the 16th century. The city's decline was hastened by wars and politics leading to the Partitions of Poland at the end of the 18th century. By the time of the architectural restoration proposed for the cloth hall in 1870 under Austrian rule, much of the historic city center was decrepit. A change in political and economic fortunes for the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria ushered in a revival due to newly established Legislative Assembly or Sejm of the Land. The successful renovation of the Cloth Hall, based on design by Tomasz Pryliński and supervised by Mayor Mikołaj Zyblikiewicz, Sejm Marshal, was one of the most notable achievements of this period.
The hall has hosted many distinguished guests over the centuries and is still used to entertain monarchs and dignitaries, such as Charles, Prince of Wales and Emperor Akihito of Japan, who was welcomed here in 2002. In the past, balls were held here, most notably after Prince Józef Poniatowski had briefly liberated the city from the Austrians in 1809. Aside from its history and cultural value, the hall still is still used as a center of commerce.
On the upper floor of the hall is the Sukiennice Museum division of the National Museum, Kraków. It holds the largest permanent exhibit of the 19th-century Polish painting and sculpture, in four grand exhibition halls arranged by historical period and the theme extending into an entire artistic epoch. The museum was upgraded in 2010 with new technical equipment, storerooms, service spaces as well as improved thematic layout for the display.
The Gallery of 19th-Century Polish Art was a major cultural venue from the moment it opened on October 7, 1879. It features late Baroque, Rococo, and Classicist 18th-century portraits and battle scenes by Polish and foreign pre-Romantics.