The first mention of the Madrignano Castle dates back tothe imperial diploma of Frederick Barbarossa of 1162, where it was assigned to Obizzo Malaspina.
During the Middle Ages, the village of Madrignano was part of the fief of Caliceal Cornoviglio, until 1400. In 1416 it passed to the Genoese. In 1465, Madrignano and Calice were sold to Tommaso Campofregoso, who in turn sold them to the Marquis Azzone di Mulazzo. Shortly afterwards it passed again to the Republic of Genoa, in exchange for Castevoli. The Marquis of Mulazzo reconquered and kept it, but lost Calice. It was then contested again by the Genoese and the Marquis of Mulazzo, and finally thecastle was part of the territories belonging to the Malaspina for three centuries. It survived the battles that destroyed Lunigiana, but the castle was damaged by an assault between 1705 and 1706, during the battles between the French, the Spanish and the Austrians. The manor was occupied for ten days and its structure was badly damaged. From 1772 the area returned to the Grand Duchy of Tuscany and followed the same destiny.
Even though the castle’s structure dates back a long time, its original architecture was destroyed by the Genoese in 1416, and it was then enlarged and modified. The only evidence of the structure, are the round corner tower and the impressive ruins.The building has recently been strengthened, restored and assigned to the Ligurian Super intendence of Fine Arts and Landscapes.
Today the castle is owned by the municipality and houses the Museum of Ancient Ligurians.References:
Roman Walls of Lugo are an exceptional architectural, archaeological and constructive legacy of Roman engineering, dating from the 3rd and 4th centuries AD. The Walls are built of internal and external stone facings of slate with some granite, with a core filling of a conglomerate of slate slabs and worked stone pieces from Roman buildings, interlocked with lime mortar.
Their total length of 2117 m in the shape of an oblong rectangle occupies an area of 1.68 ha. Their height varies between 8 and 10 m, with a width of 4.2 m, reaching 7 m in some specific points. The walls still contain 85 external towers, 10 gates (five of which are original and five that were opened in modern times), four staircases and two ramps providing access to the walkway along the top of the walls, one of which is internal and the other external. Each tower contained access stairs leading from the intervallum to the wall walk of town wall, of which a total of 21 have been discovered to date.
The defences of Lugo are the most complete and best preserved example of Roman military architecture in the Western Roman Empire.
Despite the renovation work carried out, the walls conserve their original layout and the construction features associated with their defensive purpose, with walls, battlements, towers, fortifications, both modern and original gates and stairways, and a moat.
Since they were built, the walls have defined the layout and growth of the city, which was declared a Historical-Artistic Ensemble in 1973, forming a part of it and becoming an emblematic structure that can be freely accessed to walk along. The local inhabitants and visitors alike have used them as an area for enjoyment and as a part of urban life for centuries.
The fortifications were added to UNESCO"s World Heritage List in late 2000 and are a popular tourist attraction.