Hofhegnenberg Castle construction began originally in the early 14h century, when the ministerial family Hegnenberg left their original motte-and-bailey castle at today’s Althegnenberg, only five kilometres away from Hofhegnenberg. Between 1399 and 1540, Hofhegnenberg was no longer under the rule of the Hegnenberg family but had instead been passed as a fiefdom from one ducal pfleger, or overlord, to another. In 1557 the medieval castle was reconstructed and the work continued until 1790.
Hofhegnenberg Castle is characterized by a remarkable overall structure with an intriguing architectural potpourri composed of stylistic elements ranging from Medieval to Renaissance, Baroque and even Neo-Gothic. There are several elements within the building complex dating as far back as to the 16th and 17th century, such as carved-stone coats of arms of the noble family Hegnenberg emblazoning different areas of the facade. One of these can be found in the inner courtyard next to the massive wooden portal leading to the St Maria chapel, incorporated in the castle’s north wing. This particular stone tablet dates back to either 1623 or 1628, which cannot be clearly determined at this point, as the engravings have become too eroded to make an unambiguous reading possible.
The castle’s main four-wing complex is overall dominated by rectangular structures, and comprises 5 gable-roofed buildings, all different in height with a belfry towering above all other structures and a Neo-Gothically altered gateway building to the west, framed by two shorter towers, one of which is topped by an onion dome. The adjoining farmyard was once located on the estate’s westside, but relocated and entirely rebuilt during the 19th century to the north, where it still stands today.References:
Roman Walls of Lugo are an exceptional architectural, archaeological and constructive legacy of Roman engineering, dating from the 3rd and 4th centuries AD. The Walls are built of internal and external stone facings of slate with some granite, with a core filling of a conglomerate of slate slabs and worked stone pieces from Roman buildings, interlocked with lime mortar.
Their total length of 2117 m in the shape of an oblong rectangle occupies an area of 1.68 ha. Their height varies between 8 and 10 m, with a width of 4.2 m, reaching 7 m in some specific points. The walls still contain 85 external towers, 10 gates (five of which are original and five that were opened in modern times), four staircases and two ramps providing access to the walkway along the top of the walls, one of which is internal and the other external. Each tower contained access stairs leading from the intervallum to the wall walk of town wall, of which a total of 21 have been discovered to date.
The defences of Lugo are the most complete and best preserved example of Roman military architecture in the Western Roman Empire.
Despite the renovation work carried out, the walls conserve their original layout and the construction features associated with their defensive purpose, with walls, battlements, towers, fortifications, both modern and original gates and stairways, and a moat.
Since they were built, the walls have defined the layout and growth of the city, which was declared a Historical-Artistic Ensemble in 1973, forming a part of it and becoming an emblematic structure that can be freely accessed to walk along. The local inhabitants and visitors alike have used them as an area for enjoyment and as a part of urban life for centuries.
The fortifications were added to UNESCO"s World Heritage List in late 2000 and are a popular tourist attraction.