The Cathedral of Augsburg is perhaps located on the site of a pre-existing 4th-century building, not necessarily a church, whose foundations have been excavated beneath the current level; the site is included within the ancient Roman walls of Augusta Vindelicorum. The first known church in the place is documented from 822, but dating to the late 8th century reigns of bishops Wikterp and Simpert.
The edifice was damaged by the Magyars, and was restored in 923 under bishop Ulrich. Another repairing intervention occurred in 994, when the western apse crumbled down; the restoration was funded by empress Adelaide. The current Romanesque structure was commissioned in 1043 by bishop Henry III, and was completed in 1065. The two towers, which are visible from the whole city, were completed in 1075. From 1331 to 1431 numerous Gothic elements were added, including the eastern choir.
During the Protestant Reformation, the church lost most of its religious artworks, although some were later restored. The interior, which was turned into a Baroque one during the 17th century, was partially restored to its late medieval appearance in the 19th century, with the addition of some neo-Gothic elements. In 1565 the northern tower was heightened. The church suffered only limited damage during World War II, mostly to the Chapel of Our Lady.
The church has some unusual features, such as the absence of true façade and the presence of two choirs. It is on the basilica plan with a nave and four aisles, and is primarily built of red brickwork, supported by buttresses. The western apse is preceded by a transept. It has also two choirs and two towers, ending with a triangular pediment and copper spires. In front of the church are the foundations of the church of St. John (10th century) and remains of the Roman walls.
The southern portal, dating to 1356, features numerous carved reliefs, portraying scenes from the life of the Virgin Mary on the tympanum and the central column, while on the jambs are the stories of the apostles. The northern portal (1343) has a tympanum with the Annunciation, the Birth of Christ, the Adoration of the Magi, and the Death and the Coronation of the Virgin. Some of the figures have been transferred in the interior.
The 11th century bronze door, once in the souther choir portal, is now in the Cathedral's Museum. It includes 35 bronze panels in two series: on the left are scenes from the Old Testament, including the creation of Eve and her meeting with Adam; the Garden of Eden and the Serpent; Moses and the rod transformed into a serpent; the miracle of Aaron upon of the Egyptians' rods; Samson taming the lion and killing the Philistines. The other series, on the right, depicts episodes from the New Testament: the woman who lost a piece of silver; the Heaven birds; a vineyard, as well as the predecessors of Christ: Melchizedek, Moses, Aaron, David, Judas Maccabaeus and other Prophets. Finally there are lions, bear, birds and centaurs, element of medieval symbolism.
The southern clerestory has five stained glass windows dated to the late 11th-early 12th centuries, the oldest in Germany: they feature the prophets David, Jonah, Daniel, Moses, Hosea, and were perhaps part of a larger series, the others now being missing. The southern aisles house more recent medieval stained glass windows (1330–1340), with stories of the Virgin Mary.
The nave pillars have four paintings of the life of Mary, executed by Hans Holbein the Elder in 1493. The northern transept has a series of portraits of the bishops of Augsburg, which was begun in 1488 and continued up to modern times. The Chapel of Our Lady was designed in 1720-21 by Gabriel de Gabrieli.
Other artworks in the church include the bishop's throne (c. 1100), supported by two crouched lions; the bronze tomb of Bishop Wolfhart Rot (1302) and other bishops; a large fresco depicting St. Christopher (southern transept, 1491); an 'Ecce Homo' by Baroque artist Georg Petel. The church has also a Romanesque crypt, dating to the 10th century and located under the western choir, and an annexed cloister.References:
From its origin as a small stronghold built by the ancient Illyrian tribe Dalmatae, becoming a royal castle that was the seat of many Croatian kings, to its final development as a large fortress during the Ottoman wars in Europe, Klis Fortress has guarded the frontier, being lost and re-conquered several times. Due to its location on a pass that separates the mountains Mosor and Kozjak, the fortress served as a major source of defense in Dalmatia, especially against the Ottoman advance, and has been a key crossroad between the Mediterranean belt and the Balkan rear.
Since Duke Mislav of the Duchy of Croatia made Klis Fortress the seat of his throne in the middle of the 9th century, the fortress served as the seat of many Croatia"s rulers. The reign of his successor, Duke Trpimir I, the founder of the Croatian royal House of Trpimirović, is significant for spreading Christianity in the Duchy of Croatia. He largely expanded the Klis Fortress, and in Rižinice, in the valley under the fortress, he built a church and the first Benedictine monastery in Croatia. During the reign of the first Croatian king, Tomislav, Klis and Biograd na Moru were his chief residences.
In March 1242 at Klis Fortress, Tatars who were a constituent segment of the Mongol army under the leadership of Kadan suffered a major defeat while in pursuit of the Hungarian army led by King Béla IV. After their defeat by Croatian forces, the Mongols retreated, and Béla IV rewarded many Croatian towns and nobles with 'substantial riches'. During the Late Middle Ages, the fortress was governed by Croatian nobility, amongst whom Paul I Šubić of Bribir was the most significant. During his reign, the House of Šubić controlled most of modern-day Croatia and Bosnia. Excluding the brief possession by the forces of Bosnian King, Tvrtko I, the fortress remained in Hungaro-Croatian hands for the next several hundred years, until the 16th century.
Klis Fortress is probably best known for its defense against the Ottoman invasion of Europe in the early 16th century. Croatian captain Petar Kružić led the defense of the fortress against a Turkish invasion and siege that lasted for more than two and a half decades. During this defense, as Kružić and his soldiers fought without allies against the Turks, the military faction of Uskoks was formed, which later became famous as an elite Croatian militant sect. Ultimately, the defenders were defeated and the fortress was occupied by the Ottomans in 1537. After more than a century under Ottoman rule, in 1669, Klis Fortress was besieged and seized by the Republic of Venice, thus moving the border between Christian and Muslim Europe further east and helping to contribute to the decline of the Ottoman Empire. The Venetians restored and enlarged the fortress, but it was taken by the Austrians after Napoleon extinguished the republic itself in 1797. Today, Klis Fortress contains a museum where visitors to this historic military structure can see an array of arms, armor, and traditional uniforms.