The Cathedral of Augsburg is perhaps located on the site of a pre-existing 4th-century building, not necessarily a church, whose foundations have been excavated beneath the current level; the site is included within the ancient Roman walls of Augusta Vindelicorum. The first known church in the place is documented from 822, but dating to the late 8th century reigns of bishops Wikterp and Simpert.
The edifice was damaged by the Magyars, and was restored in 923 under bishop Ulrich. Another repairing intervention occurred in 994, when the western apse crumbled down; the restoration was funded by empress Adelaide. The current Romanesque structure was commissioned in 1043 by bishop Henry III, and was completed in 1065. The two towers, which are visible from the whole city, were completed in 1075. From 1331 to 1431 numerous Gothic elements were added, including the eastern choir.
During the Protestant Reformation, the church lost most of its religious artworks, although some were later restored. The interior, which was turned into a Baroque one during the 17th century, was partially restored to its late medieval appearance in the 19th century, with the addition of some neo-Gothic elements. In 1565 the northern tower was heightened. The church suffered only limited damage during World War II, mostly to the Chapel of Our Lady.
The church has some unusual features, such as the absence of true façade and the presence of two choirs. It is on the basilica plan with a nave and four aisles, and is primarily built of red brickwork, supported by buttresses. The western apse is preceded by a transept. It has also two choirs and two towers, ending with a triangular pediment and copper spires. In front of the church are the foundations of the church of St. John (10th century) and remains of the Roman walls.
The southern portal, dating to 1356, features numerous carved reliefs, portraying scenes from the life of the Virgin Mary on the tympanum and the central column, while on the jambs are the stories of the apostles. The northern portal (1343) has a tympanum with the Annunciation, the Birth of Christ, the Adoration of the Magi, and the Death and the Coronation of the Virgin. Some of the figures have been transferred in the interior.
The 11th century bronze door, once in the souther choir portal, is now in the Cathedral's Museum. It includes 35 bronze panels in two series: on the left are scenes from the Old Testament, including the creation of Eve and her meeting with Adam; the Garden of Eden and the Serpent; Moses and the rod transformed into a serpent; the miracle of Aaron upon of the Egyptians' rods; Samson taming the lion and killing the Philistines. The other series, on the right, depicts episodes from the New Testament: the woman who lost a piece of silver; the Heaven birds; a vineyard, as well as the predecessors of Christ: Melchizedek, Moses, Aaron, David, Judas Maccabaeus and other Prophets. Finally there are lions, bear, birds and centaurs, element of medieval symbolism.
The southern clerestory has five stained glass windows dated to the late 11th-early 12th centuries, the oldest in Germany: they feature the prophets David, Jonah, Daniel, Moses, Hosea, and were perhaps part of a larger series, the others now being missing. The southern aisles house more recent medieval stained glass windows (1330–1340), with stories of the Virgin Mary.
The nave pillars have four paintings of the life of Mary, executed by Hans Holbein the Elder in 1493. The northern transept has a series of portraits of the bishops of Augsburg, which was begun in 1488 and continued up to modern times. The Chapel of Our Lady was designed in 1720-21 by Gabriel de Gabrieli.
Other artworks in the church include the bishop's throne (c. 1100), supported by two crouched lions; the bronze tomb of Bishop Wolfhart Rot (1302) and other bishops; a large fresco depicting St. Christopher (southern transept, 1491); an 'Ecce Homo' by Baroque artist Georg Petel. The church has also a Romanesque crypt, dating to the 10th century and located under the western choir, and an annexed cloister.References:
Roman Walls of Lugo are an exceptional architectural, archaeological and constructive legacy of Roman engineering, dating from the 3rd and 4th centuries AD. The Walls are built of internal and external stone facings of slate with some granite, with a core filling of a conglomerate of slate slabs and worked stone pieces from Roman buildings, interlocked with lime mortar.
Their total length of 2117 m in the shape of an oblong rectangle occupies an area of 1.68 ha. Their height varies between 8 and 10 m, with a width of 4.2 m, reaching 7 m in some specific points. The walls still contain 85 external towers, 10 gates (five of which are original and five that were opened in modern times), four staircases and two ramps providing access to the walkway along the top of the walls, one of which is internal and the other external. Each tower contained access stairs leading from the intervallum to the wall walk of town wall, of which a total of 21 have been discovered to date.
The defences of Lugo are the most complete and best preserved example of Roman military architecture in the Western Roman Empire.
Despite the renovation work carried out, the walls conserve their original layout and the construction features associated with their defensive purpose, with walls, battlements, towers, fortifications, both modern and original gates and stairways, and a moat.
Since they were built, the walls have defined the layout and growth of the city, which was declared a Historical-Artistic Ensemble in 1973, forming a part of it and becoming an emblematic structure that can be freely accessed to walk along. The local inhabitants and visitors alike have used them as an area for enjoyment and as a part of urban life for centuries.
The fortifications were added to UNESCO"s World Heritage List in late 2000 and are a popular tourist attraction.